Scientific studies DATABASE PAGE 4

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  • Carotenoids
  1. Alpha-Carotene
  2. β-Carotene
  3. β-Cyptoxanthin
  4. Astaxanthin
  5. Canthaxanthin
  6. Lutein/Zeaxanthin
  7. Lycopene
  • Coenzyme Q10


A family of pigments with at least six-hundred members, as Axerophthol palmitate, alpha and beta

Carotene, trans-Retinoic acid, Lycopene, Lutein, Canta-xantine, Cripto-xantine, Zea-xantine and OTHER


  1. Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids –
  2. Carotenoids in cancer chemoprevention.
  3. Carotenoids – Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University‎ SHORT GENERAL OVERVIEW –ATTENTION LUNG CANCER

Studies on Carotenoids and cancer

Breast cancer:

American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR): CRU: Carotenoids & breast cancer                                                                …/carotenoids_breast_cancer.html

Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer‎ (PUBMED)

Carotenoids in fruits and vegetables lower breast cancer risk…/carotenoids-breast-cancer-risk-fruit…

Studies on Carotenoids and breast cancer (MANY STUDIES)

New evidence indicates natural carotenoids prevent breast cancer……/168317_Dietary_carotenoids_and_risk_of_ hormone_receptor_defined_breast_cancer.html…/2593002_Plasma_carotenoids_tocopherols_ retinol_and_breast_cancer_risk_results_from.html…/2906755_Dietary_carotenoids_and_risk_of_ breast_cancer_in_Chinese_women.html
Ovarian Cancer:…/2872284_Intake_of_specific_carotenoids_and_ the_risk_of_epithelial_ovarian.html
Prostate cancer:…/1266234_Carotenoids_and_prostate_cancer_risk. html…/3738977_Plasma_carotenoids_retinol_and_ tocopherols_and_the_risk_of_prostate.html…/4006202_Plasma_carotenoids_and_prostate_ cancer_a_population_based_case_control.html…/3168626_Serum_lycopene_other_carotenoids_ and_prostate_cancer_risk_a_nested.html…/4500636_Vitamin_A_retinoids_and_carotenoids _as_chemopreventive_agents_for_prostate.html

Studies on Carotenoids and Colorectal cancer 
(MANY STUDIES) cancer :

Gastric cancer:…/2694925_Vitamin_A_retinol_and_carotenoids_ and_the_risk_of_gastric.html
Renal cancer:…/1052599_Intakes_of_fruit_vegetables_and_ carotenoids_and_renal_cell_cancer.html
Lung cancer:…/976167_Carotenoids_and_lung_cancer_ prevention.html
2009 BMC cancer. Plasma and dietary Carotenoids are associated with reduced oxidative stress in women previously treated for breast cancer. 2007 Cancer 
  • Alpha-Carotene

Yellow-orange vegetables(carrots, sweet totatoes,pumpkin) and Dark-green vegetables (broccoli, green beans, spinach)

FUNCTIONS: Provitamin A activity; Anti-oxidant

EFFECTS: Immune- enhancement; Stimulate cell to cell communication; Decreases risk of some cancers…/168317_Dietary_carotenoids_and_risk_of_ hormone_receptor_defined_breast_cancer.html
However, dietary Alphacarotene and Beta-carotene were inversely associated with the risk of ER-PR-breast cancer among ever smokers. Among ever smokers  
See more studies below ( alpha carotene in association with other carotenoids in WHOLE FOODS)

  • β-Carotene

SOURCES:  Green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables (carrots, apricots, spinach, sweet potetoes, pumpkin, pepper, kale,cantaloupe)

FUNCTIONS: Provitamin A activity;Antioxidant

EFFECTS: Immune-enhancement; Decreases risk of some cancers and some cardiovascular events; high-dose supplementation may increase the risk of lung cancer among smokers…/1637140_Mechanism_of_beta_carotene_induced _apoptosis_of_gastric_cancer_cells.html…/694992_Associations_between_alpha_tocopherol _beta_carotene_and_retinol_and_prostate.html…/1163262_Beta_carotene_in_multivitamins_and_ the_possible_risk_of_lung.html…/253295_Beta_carotene_and_lung_cancer_in_ smokers_review_of_hypotheses.html…/1742236_Lung_cancer_associated_with_beta_ carotene_supplementation_in_smokers.html…/271777_Long_term_use_of_beta_carotene_ retinol_lycopene_and_lutein.html

Studies on Beta-carotene and Apoptotic

  • β-Cyptoxanthin

SOURCES: Orange fruits (mandarin orange and papaya, etc.), corn, peas, and egg yolks

FUNCTIONS:  Provitamin A activity; Anti-oxidant

EFFECTS: Anti-inflammatory effects; Inhibits risks of some cancer and cardiovascular events; Immune enhancement

The carotenoid beta cryptoxanthin stimulates the repair of DNA…/2490959_The_carotenoid_beta_cryptoxanthin_ stimulates_the_repair_of_DNA_oxidation.html…/2147586_Cancer_prevention_by_carotenoids. html…/1663484_Combination_of_beta_cryptoxanthin_ and_zinc_has_potent_effects_on.html…/4006202_Plasma_carotenoids_and_prostate_ cancer_a_population_based_case_control.html
After adjustment for confounders, plasma levels of lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin were inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.…/1730489_beta_Carotene_and_beta_ cryptoxanthin_but_not_lutein_evoke_redox.html
beta Carotene and beta cryptoxanthin but not lutein evoke redox and immune 
Famous Study Blaming Beta-Carotene for Increases in Lung Cancer Was 

  • Astaxanthin

SOURCES: Green algae, salmon, trout, crustacea

FUNCTIONS: Antioxidant;Coloration

EFFECTS: Prevent certain cancers, cataract, diabetes, and inflammatory  neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases
See more studies on Astaxanthin and… Tumor (36) oxidative stress (34) Osteosarcoma (32) Apoptotic (31) Death (30) Osteogenic (30) Proliferative (30)…/2009018_Astaxanthin_inhibits_tumor_invasion_ by_decreasing_extracellular_matrix_production_and.html
Colon cancer is the third most malignant Neoplasm in the world and it remains an important cause of mortality in Asian and Western countries. Astaxanthin (AST)…/389032_Astaxanthin_decreased_oxidative_stress _and_inflammation_and_enhanced_immune_response.html
BACKGROUND : Astaxanthin modulates immune response, inhibits cancer cell growth, reduces bacterial load and gastric inflammation, and protects against…/6645_Evaluation_of_the_protective_effects_of_ all_trans_astaxanthin_on.html
Evaluation of the protective effects of all trans astaxanthin on canine osteosarcoma cell lines.  Mushrooms That Fight Cancer and Boost the Immune System.…/1416835_Antioxidative_and_antiproliferative_ effects_of_astaxanthin_during_the_initiation_stages.html
Antioxidative and antiproliferative effects of astaxanthin during the initiation stages of 1 Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer mortality worldwide.…/812187_Astaxanthin_protects_mitochondrial_ redox_state_and_functional_integrity_against_oxidative.html
Astaxanthin protects mitochondrial redox state and functional integrity against oxidative such as cancer and neurodegenerative and lifestyle-related diseases .

  • Canthaxanthin

SOURCES:Salmon, crustacea

FUNCTIONS:Antioxidant; Coloration

EFFECTS: Immune enhancement; Decreases  risk of some cancers

SOURCES Brown algae(KOMBU, KELP), heterokonts


EFFECTS: Anti-cancer, anti-allergic, anti-obese, anti-inflammatory, and anti-osteoporotic activities

  • Lutein/Zeaxanthin

Sources: Dark green leafy vegetables (spinach, kale), red peppers, maize, tomatoes, corn, and egg yolks

Functions: Anti-photosensitizing agent and photosynthetic pigment; Acts as antioxidants and blue light filters

EFFECTS: Decrease age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers…/1435234_Prospective_study_of_lutein_ zeaxanthin_intake_and_risk_of_age.html…/391042_Anti_mutagenic_and_anti_carcinogenic _potential_of_the_carotenoid_meso.html
  • Lycopene

SOURCES: Water melon,grapes, grapefruits, tomatoes, nectarines, peaches,apricots

FUNTIONS: Anti-oxidant

EFFECTS: Decreases risk of some cancers and some cardiovascular events, diabetes, and osteoporosis

Studies on Lycopene and cancer :
These complex combinations of nutrients(vitamins, provitamins, minerals,etc) phytonutrients,enzymes, etc- these   complexes are able to enter into complex enzymatic mechanisms of DNA mammals, inducing the apoptosis (suicide) phenomenon in these mammal cells if diseased through infection or other illnesses (such as cancer).
ORGANIC food is just as IMPORTANT as WHOLE food – see note about GMO below.…/2694925_Vitamin_A_retinol_and_carotenoids_ and_the_risk_of_gastric.html
High levels of natural plant antioxidant alphacarotene are associated with fewer  Fruit and vegetable carotenoids protect women from breast, ovarian cancer.…/813428_Postradiotherapy_plasma_lutein_alphacarotene_and_beta_carotene_are_positively.html
Postradiotherapy plasma lutein, alpha carotene, and beta carotene are positively associated with survival in patients with  Publication: Nutrition and cancer…/2872284_Intake_of_specific_carotenoids_and_ the_risk_of_epithelial_ovarian.html
Intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.  To investigate whether the intake of alphacarotenebeta-carotene, beta- cryptoxanthin,…/1052599_Intakes_of_fruit_vegetables_and_ carotenoids_and_renal_cell_cancer.html
Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: a  were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for alphacarotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for beta-carotene, 0.86…/3168626_Serum_lycopene_other_carotenoids_ and_prostate_cancer_risk_a_nested.html
Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer risk: a nested case prediagnostic serum Carotenoids (lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene…/2541360_Serum_alpha_Carotene_Concentrations _and_Risk_of_Death_Among_US.html
Serum {alphaCarotene Concentrations and Risk of Death Among US Adults: ß-carotene in particular–to risk of cancer and Cardiovascular disease (CVD).…/3632490_Intake_of_vitamin_A_rich_foods_and _lung_cancer_risk.html
reduced risk for lung cancer was found to be associated with increased intakes of vitamin A, alpha-carotene, and Beta-carotene from 13 food items.…/271777_Long_term_use_of_beta_carotene_ retinol_lycopene_and_lutein.html

Coenzyme Q10

Co-enzyme Q10  and prostate cancer(multiethnic study):…/268201_Plasma_Coenzyme_Q10_levels_and_ Prostate_Cancer_Risk_The_Multiethnic.html

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) low plasmatic levels in breast , lung, pancreatic cancer…/2871089_Low_plasma_coenzyme_Q10_levels_ as_an_independent_prognostic_factor.html

Coq10 & riboflavina & niacin(see above respiratory vitamins) ANTI angiogenic potential (implicitly ANTI-cancerous)…/1103042_Anti_angiogenic_potential_of_ CoenzymeQ10_riboflavin_and_niacin_in_breast.html

Coq10 & riboflavina & niacin and breast cancers treated with Tamoxifen :…/2664399_Effect_of_coenzyme_Q10_riboflavin_ and_niacin_on_serum_CEA.html…/1156737_Effect_of_Coenzyme_Q10_Riboflavin _and_Niacin_on_Tamoxifen_treated.html

Coenzyme Q10, Riboflavin  & niacin  & breast cancer…/2664399_Effect_of_coenzyme_Q10_riboflavin_ and_niacin_on_serum_CEA.html

Co10 and neck cancer…/549960_Antioxidant_effects_of_quercetin_and_ coenzyme_Q10_in_mini_organ.html

Co10, vitamins A, C, E, lung cancer…/424985_Concentrations_of_blood_vitamin_A_C _E_coenzyme_Q10_and.html



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