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  • Flavonoids:

  1. Flavonoid Subclass Dietary Flavonoids
    Anthocyanidins Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin
    Flavanols Monomers (Catechins):Catechin, Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin gallate

    Dimers and Polymers:Theaflavins, Thearubigins, Proanthocyanidins

    Flavanones Hesperetin, Naringenin, Eriodictyol
    Flavonols Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Isorhamnetin
    Flavones Apigenin, Luteolin
    Isoflavones Daidzein, Genistein, Glycitein



A group of more 4.000 polyphenolic compounds.

Dietary flavonoids as cancer prevention agents.

American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR): CRU: Flavonoids for 

Natural flavonoids from fruits and vegetables dramatically lower cancer

Anti-cancer potential of flavonoids: recent trends and future – Springer

What are Flavonoids? – from

FlavonoidsFlavonoid Subclasses and Breast Cancer Risk

These compounds possess a common phenylbenzopyrone structure (C6-C3-C6) , and they are categorized according to the saturation level and opening of the central pyran ring, mainly into seven main groups: Flavonones, Flavanols, Flavones, Flavonols, Flavanonols, and Isoflavones.

i.e.: Acacetin, Apigenin, Baicalein, Baicalin, Bilabetol, Biochanin A, g

  • Flavonoids are a large family of polyphenolic compounds synthesized by plants. (More Information)
  • Scientists are interested in the potential health benefits of flavonoids associated with fruit and vegetable-rich diets. (More Information)
  • Many of the biological effects of flavonoids appear to be related to their ability to modulate cell-signaling pathways, rather than their antioxidant activity. (More Information)
  • Promising results in animal studies :high flavonoid intakes can help prevent cancer in humans. (More Information)
Table 1: Common Dietary Flavonoids(Select the highlighted text to see chemical structures.)
Flavonoid Subclass Dietary Flavonoids Some Common Food Sources
Anthocyanidins Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin Red, blue, and purple berries; red and purple grapes; red wine
Flavanols Monomers (Catechins):Catechin, Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin gallateDimers and Polymers:Theaflavins, Thearubigins, Proanthocyanidins Catechins: Teas (particularly green and white), chocolate, grapes, berries, applesTheaflavins, Thearubigins: Teas (particularly black and oolong)Proanthocyanidins: Chocolate, apples, berries, red grapes, red wine
Flavanones Hesperetin, Naringenin, Eriodictyol Citrus fruits and juices, e.g., oranges, grapefruits, lemons
Flavonols Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Isorhamnetin Widely distributed: yellow onions, scallions, kale, broccoli, apples, berries, teas
Flavones Apigenin, Luteolin Parsley, thyme, celery, hot peppers,
Isoflavones Daidzein, Genistein, Glycitein Soybeans, soy foods, legumes


Biological Activities

Direct Antioxidant Activity

Flavonoids are effective scavengers of free radicals in the test tube (in vitro)(9, 10). However, even with very high flavonoid intakes, plasma and intracellular flavonoid concentrations in humans are likely to be 100-1,000 times lower than concentrations of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate (vitamin C), uric acid, or glutathione. Moreover, most circulating flavonoids are actually flavonoid metabolites, some of which have lower antioxidant activity than the parent flavonoid. For these reasons, the relative contribution of dietary flavonoids to plasma and tissue antioxidant function in vivo is likely to be very small or negligible (711, 12).

Metal Chelation

Metal ions, such as iron and copper, can catalyze the production of free radicals. The ability of flavonoids to chelate (bind) metal ions appears to contribute to their antioxidant activity in vitro (13, 14). In living organisms, most iron and copper are bound to proteins, limiting their participation in reactions that produce free radicals. Although the metal-chelating activities of flavonoids may be beneficial in pathological conditions of iron or copper excess, it is not known whether flavonoids or their metabolites function as effective metal chelators in vivo (11).

Effects on Cell-Signaling Pathways

Cells are capable of responding to a variety of different stresses or signals by increasing or decreasing the availability of specific proteins. The complex cascades of events that lead to changes in the expression of specific genes are known as cell-signaling pathways or signal transduction pathways. These pathways regulate numerous cell processes, including growth, proliferation, and death (apoptosis). Although it was initially hypothesized that the biological effects of flavonoids would be related to their antioxidant activity, available evidence from cell culture experiments suggests that many of the biological effects of flavonoids are related to their ability to modulate cell-signaling pathways (7). Intracellular concentrations of flavonoids required to affect cell-signaling pathways are considerably lower than those required to affect cellular antioxidant capacity. Flavonoid metabolites may retain their ability to interact with cell-signaling proteins even if their antioxidant activity is diminished (15, 16). Effective signal transduction requires proteins known as kinases that catalyze the phosphorylation of target proteins at specific sites. Cascades involving specific phosphorylations or dephosphorylations of signal transduction proteins ultimately affect the activity of transcription factors—proteins that bind to specific response elements on DNA and promote or inhibit the transcription of various genes. The results of numerous studies in cell culture suggest that flavonoids may affect chronic disease by selectively inhibiting kinases (717). Cell growth and proliferation are also regulated by growth factors that initiate cell-signaling cascades by binding to specific receptors in cell membranes. Flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation or blocking receptor binding by growth factors (18).

Modulation of cell-signaling pathways by flavonoids help in  cancer by:

Stimulating phase II detoxification enzyme activity (19, 20): Phase II detoxification enzymes catalyze reactions that promote the excretion of potentially toxic or carcinogenic chemicals.

Preserving normal cell cycle regulation (21, 22): Once a cell divides, it passes through a sequence of stages collectively known as the cell cycle before it divides again. Following DNA damage, the cell cycle can be transiently arrested at damage checkpoints, which allows for DNA repair or activation of pathways leading to cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is irreparable (23). Defective cell cycle regulation may result in the propagation of mutations that contribute to the development of cancer.

Inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis (24-26): Unlike normal cells, cancer cells proliferate rapidly and lose the ability to respond to cell death signals that initiate apoptosis.

Inhibiting tumor invasion and angiogenesis (27, 28): Cancerous cells invade normal tissue aided by enzymes called matrix-metalloproteinases. To fuel their rapid growth, invasive tumors must develop new blood vessels by a process known as angiogenesis.

Decreasing inflammation (29-31)Inflammation can result in locally increased production of free radicals by inflammatory enzymes, as well as the release of inflammatory mediators that promote cell proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibit apoptosis (32).

Various flavonoids have been found to inhibit the development of chemically-induced cancers in animal models of lung (76), oral (77), esophageal (78), stomach (79), colon (80), skin (81), prostate (82, 83), and mammary (breast) cancer (84),

In a cohort of postmenopausal women in the U.S., catechin intake from tea, but not fruits and vegetables, was inversely associated with the risk of rectal cancer, but not other cancers (90).

Two prospective cohort studies in Finland, where average flavonoid intakes are relatively low, found that men with the highest dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones had a significantly lower risk of developing lung cancer than those with the lowest intakes (44, 45).

When individual dietary flavonoids were analyzed, dietary quercetin intake, mainly from apples, was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer; myricetin intake was inversely associated with the risk of prostate cancer (45).

Some studies have observed lower flavonoid intakes in people diagnosed with lung (92), stomach (93, 94), and breast(95) cancer.For more information on flavonoid-rich foods and cancer, see separate articles on Fruits and VegetablesLegumes, and Tea. Clinical trials will be necessary to determine if specific flavonoids are beneficial in the prevention or treatment of cancer; a few clinical trials are currently under way (see

Food Sources

Dietary sources of flavonoids include tea, red wine, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Individual flavonoid intakes may vary considerably depending on whether tea, red wine, soy products, or fruits and vegetables are commonly consumed [reviewed in (3)]. Although individual flavonoid intakes may vary, total flavonoid intakes in Western populations appear to average about 150-200 mg/day (3113). Information on the flavonoid content of some flavonoid-rich foods is presented in table 2 and table 3. These values should be considered approximate since a number of factors may affect the flavonoid content of foods, including agricultural practices, environmental factors, ripening, processing, storing, and cooking. For more information about the flavonoid content of foods, see the USDA databases for the flavonoid andproanthocyanidin content of selected foods. For information on the isoflavone content of soy foods, see the separate article on Soy Isoflavones or the USDA database for the isoflavone content of selected foods.

Table 2. Anthocyanin, Flavanol, and Proanthocyanidin Content of Selected Foods

Table 3. Flavone, Flavonol, and Flavanone Content of Selected Foods



Anthocyanins can be found in numerous plants, but high levels are present in red/purple, black grape, acai, backcurrant, blueberry, bilberry, elderberry and mixed berry , cherry, and purple corn, extracts that are rich in anthocyanins are available as dietary supplements without a prescription in the U.S. The anthocyanin content of these products may vary considerably. Standardized extracts that list the amount of anthocyanins per dose are available.

Anthocyanins are water-soluble phytochemicals with a typical red to blue color.

Anthocyanins belong to the group of flavonoids, polyphenolic molecules containing 15 carbon atoms and which can be visualized as two benzene rings joined together with a short three carbon chain. They can be found in tissues of plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. Anthocyanins occur mainly as glycosides of anthocyanidins such as cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, petunidin and malvidin.

Health Benefits of Anthocyanins

Although anthocyanins are powerful antioxidants in vitro, their real biological activity will be low because of their low stability and poor absorption. Most studies on the potential health benefits of anthocyanins have been focused on its effect on cardiovascular health, its anti-cancer activity and anti-inflammatory properties.

Cardiovascular health

The beneficial biological effects of anthocyanins on cardiovascular health may be driven by their affinity for proteins and their antioxidant activity. Anthocyanins can act on different cells involved in the development of arthrosclerosis.


Studies have shown that anthocyanins may act as anti-cancer agents by inhibit promotion and progression of tumor cells by stopping the growth of pre-malignant cells, increasing the apoptosis of cancer cells and inhibiting the growth of new blood vessels that nourish tumors.

Epidemiological studies show that the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rich in polyphenols, is linked to reduced cancer risk. Elderly men in France consuming the Mediterranean diet rich in vegetables, fruits, nuts, olive oil and also red wine, have a lot lower risk of developing prostate cancer than their counterparts in the US. Most studies about the anti-cancer effects of anthocyanins involved cyandin or malvidin. Feng and co-workers that cyanidin glycoside extracted from black raspberries killed leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner but showed no cytotoxic effects in normal cells [1]. A study with mice demonstrated cyanidin 3-glucoside and a bilberry extract significantly reduced the formation of intestinal adenoma [2] and study with human vulva cancer cells also confirmed the inhibitory action of cyanidin on overexpressing of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor [3]. Muñoz-Espada and Watkins investigated the protective effects of cyanidin and kaempferol in cultured prostate cancer cells and found that both phytochemicals reduced the production of cyclooxygenases-2 by mediating the actions of the nuclear factor kappaB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [4]. Serafino and co-workers came to the conclusion that cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside was candidate molecule for the treatment of melanoma [5]. The demonstrated that cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside reversed the melanoma cells from proliferating to the differentiated state. Treatment of the cancer cells with this anthocyanin decreased cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis.

A study by Faria and co-workers conducted at Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto found that blueberry anthocyanins demonstrated anticancer properties by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as acting chemoinhibitors [6]. The scientists investigated the anticancer properties of an anthocyanin extract and an anthocyanin-pyruvic acid adduct extract on two breast cancer cell lines. They found that both extracts significantly reduced cell proliferation and showed significant anti-invasive potential in both cell lines.

[1] Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, a natural polyphenol antioxidant, selectively kills leukemic cells by induction of oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 4;282(18):13468-76.

[2] Effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside and an anthocyanin mixture from bilberry on adenoma development in the ApcMin mouse model of intestinal carcinogenesis–relationship with tissue anthocyanin levels. Int J Cancer. 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2213-20.

[3] Meiers S, Kemény M, Weyand U, Gastpar R, von Angerer E, Marko D. „The anthocyanidins cyanidin and delphinidin are potent inhibitors of the epidermal growth-factor receptor.” J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Feb;49(2):958-62.

[4] Cyanidin attenuates PGE2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Sep;17(9):589-96.

[5] Serafino A, Sinibaldi-Vallebona P, Lazzarino G, Tavazzi B, Rasi G, Pierimarchi P, Andreola F, Moroni G, Galvano G, Galvano F, Garaci E. ” Differentiation of human melanoma cells induced by cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside.” FASEB J. 2004 Dec;18(15):1940-2.

[6] Blueberry anthocyanins and pyruvic acid adducts: anticancer properties in breast cancer cell lines. Phytother Res. 2010 Jun 17.


The anti-inflammatory action of anthocyanins may be attributed to its direct and strong antioxidant action but also its regulatory effect on the expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response.

Facts about Anthocyanins

Plants produce anthocyanins for many different reasons. Animals are attracted to the red and purple colours in fruits, whereas the bright anthocyanin colors in flowers attract insects for pollination. Anthocyanins also protect the plant cells against damage caused by UV radiation.

Anthocyanins examples

  • Cyanidin


Cyanidin belongs to the group of anthocyanins and has the typical C6-C3-C6 structure. Cyanidin is a water-soluble pigment. The colour of cyanidin will depend on the pH of the solution. Cyanidin is red when pH is below 3, blue at pH higher than 11 and violet at neutral pH. In plants the cyanidin is bound to a sugar molecule to form cyanidin 3-O-beta-Glucoside.

Cyanidin is present in most red coloured berries such as bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, loganberry and raspeberry, but also in other fruits including apples, pears, peaches and plums. The highest concentrations of cyanidin are found in the skin of the fruit.

Health Benefits of Cyanidin

Cyanidin and its glycosides may have pharmacological properties. These phytochemicals are responsible for the deep colour (mainly red, orange and blue) of many plants and fruits. They have many health promoting properties including anticarcinogenic activity, vasoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effects. Similar to other anthocyanins, cyanidin has antioxidant and radical-scavenging actions. These actions will protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of cancer and hearth disease. Cyanidin glycosides are easily absorbed into the plasma.


Cyanidin and its glycosides are very strong antioxidants and are active at pharmacological concentrations. The antioxidant activity is stronger than that of vitamin E, vitamin C and resveratrol and similar to other commercial antioxidants. Cyanidin quickly neutralizes reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, reactive oxygen and hydroxyl radical.


A study in Japan by Takanori Tsua et al indicated that cyanidin may have benefits for the prevention of obesity and diabetes. Cyanidin rich extracts significantly reduced the boy weight gain of mice fed with a high fat diet. Cyanidin reduces blood glucose level and improves insulin sensitivity due to the reduction of retinol binding protein 4 expression in type 2 diabetic mice.


Many studies have demonstrated the anti-toxic effect of cyanidin, mainly against mycotoxins. Cyandin reduces DNA fragmentation and oxidative damage by aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A.


The consumption of anti-inflammatory foods, mainly plants rich in anthocyanins, may help to control inflammation. Cyanidin from cherries alleviates arthritis in an animal model and reduces the serum level of malonaldehyde, which is a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress. Cyanidin suppress the inflammatory effect of zymosan in rats.) It can have important implications for the prevention of nitric oxide mediated inflammatory diseases.


There are numerous studies demonstrating the anti-cancer activities of cyandin. The anti-cancer and anti-mutagenic properties of this anthocyanin is directly linked to its antioxidant properties. In-vivo and in-vitro studies are linking cyanidin to a reduced risk of leukemia, lung cancer, colon cancer, skin cancer and prostate cancer. Cyanidin induces cancer cell apoptosis, reduces oxidative damage to DNA, inhibits cell growth and decrease cancer cell proliferation.

The anti-cancer and anti-mutagenic properties of anthocyanins are directly linked to their antioxidant properties. Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rich in polyphenols, to a lower cancer risk.

For example, elderly men in France, who consume the typical Mediterranean diet with high amounts of vegetables, fruits, nuts, olive oil and also red wine, have a 75% lower risk of developing prostate cancer than their counterparts in the United States. Many studies have shown the anti-cancer and anti-mutagenic of cyanidin and its non-toxic properties towards normal cells [6]. These studies used cyanidin glycosides extracted from a wide range of foods such as black rice, mulberries, bilberries and blackberries. In-vivo and in-vitro studies have linked cyanidin to reduced risk of leukemia, lung cancer colon cancer, skin cancer and prostate cancer [1,2,3,4,5].

Feng et al extracted cyanidin 3-rutinoside from black raspberries and found that this cyanidin glycoside killed cultured leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner [1].

The phytochemical induced apoptosis by increasing the level of peroxides and activated mitogen-activated protein kinases, which activate the mitochondrial pathway mediated by Bim. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside showed no cytotoxic effects to normal cells, indicating that it could be used as a potential drug in leukemia therapy.An in-vivo study with rodents showed that cyanidin 3-glucoside and a bilberry extract, containing high levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside, reduced the formation of intestinal adenoma by up to 45% in a mouse model of human familial adenomatous polyposis [2].

Adenomas are growths that could progress into carcinomas. The researchers here also concluded that cyanidin and anthocyanins in general should be further investigated chemopreventive agents against human colon cancer.

Another study found that cyanidin 3-glycoside protects colon cancer cells against oxidative DNA damage in vitro but that it exerted no antioxidant affect at nutritionally relevant levels in vivo [9]. Addition of cyanidin-3-glycoside to a vitamin E deficient diet (less than 0.5 mg/kg vitamin E) did not inhibit the lipid peroxidation or DNA damage in rats. Vitamin E deficiency resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in plasma, liver and red cells. Briviba et al. demonstrated the protective effect of cyanidin, but not its glycosides, on cultured colon cancer cells [11]. Cyanidin inhibited the mitogen-induced metabolic activity, reduced free intracellular calcium and inhibited growth of the colon carcinoma cells. Neurotensin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been associated with colon cancer. Cyanidin was able inhibit the increase of intracellular calcium induced by neurotensin. The epidermal growth factor acts by binding to receptor on the cell surface and stimulating the intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity, which in turns, initiates a signal transduction cascade. This results in biochemical changes within the cell, such as rise in intracellular calcium levels, increased glycolysis and protein synthesis that ultimately lead to cell proliferation. Cyanidin reduced the metabolic activity and reduced the cell growth [11].

A study with human vulva cancer cells also confirmed the inhibitory action of cyanidin on overexpressing of the EGF receptor. The cell growth and tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor were inhibited by cyanidin and delphinidin. The aglycones malvidin and the glycones cyanidin 3-beta-D-galactoside and malvidin 3-beta-D-glucoside were not that active. Cyanidin and delphine inhibited downstream signaling cascades by inhibiting the activation of a cancer-promoting fusion protein [12].

Ding et al found that cyanidin glycoside inhibits the proliferation of cultured lung carcinoma cells and migration and invasion epithelial carcinoma cells of in nude mice [3].

Chen et al isolated the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside from black rice and tested their effects on different cancer cell lines. They found that the breast cancer cell line HS578T was the most sensitive to the two phytochemicals and experienced the strongest inhibition of cell growth. Cyanidin 3-glucoside decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK-1 and CDK-2) and cyclins (B1and D1). Cyanidin also induced activation of the effector caspase CASP3, which cleaves proteins resulting in cell death [4].

Hyun et al. also tested the effects of anthocyanins extracted from black rice on the growth of cancer cells. Canidin and maldivin, showed a significant inhibition of the growth of human monocytic leukemia cells and caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis [10].

The protective effects of cyanidin and kaempferol, both present in red wine, were investigated by Muñoz-Espada and Watkins. They tested the influence of these phytochemicals on cultured prostate cancer cells and came to the conclusion that cyanidin and kaempferol reduced the production of cyclooxygenases-2 by mediating the actions of the nuclear factor kappaB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [5].

The main cyanidin glycosides in mulberry are cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside[6].

Chen et al found that these cyanidin glycosides had an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells, without showing cytotoxicity. The cyanidin glycosides acted by decreasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-plasminogen activator and increased the expression of the tissue inhibitor of matrix matalloprotinase-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor. An in-vitro study with human melanoma cells demonstrated that cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside was able to reverse the cancer cells from proliferating to the differentiated state. Treatment of the cancer cells with this anthocyanin decreased cell proliferation, without inducing apoptosis. This study concluded that cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside is a potential molecule for the treatment of melanoma [8].

[1] Feng R, Ni HM, Wang SY, Tourkova IL, Shurin MR, Harada H, Yin XM. ” Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, a natural polyphenol antioxidant, selectively kills leukemic cells by induction of oxidative stress.” J Biol Chem. 2007 May 4;282(18):13468-76.

[2] Cooke D, Schwarz M, Boocock D, Winterhalter P, Steward WP, Gescher AJ, Marczylo TH. ” Effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside and an anthocyanin mixture from bilberry on adenoma development in the ApcMin mouse model of intestinal carcinogenesis–relationship with tissue anthocyanin levels.” Int J Cancer. 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2213-20.

[3] Ding M, Feng R, Wang SY, Bowman L, Lu Y, Qian Y, Castranova V, Jiang BH, Shi X. ” Cyanidin-3-glucoside, a natural product derived from blackberry, exhibits chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity.” J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 23;281(25):17359-68.

[4] Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Chiang CL, Yang SF, Hsieh YS. ” Cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside inhibit tumor cell growth and induce apoptosis in vitro and suppress tumor growth in vivo.” Nutr Cancer. 2005;53(2):232-43.

[5] Muñoz-Espada AC, Watkins BA. „Cyanidin attenuates PGE2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.” J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Sep;17(9):589-96.

[6] Fimognari C, Berti F, Nüsse M, Cantelli-Fortii G, Hrelia P. ” In vitro anticancer activity of cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside: effects on transformed and non-transformed T lymphocytes.” Anticancer Res. 2005 Jul-Aug;25(4):2837-40

[7] Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Kuo WH, Chiang CL, Hsieh YS. „Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line.” Cancer Lett. 2006 Apr 28;235(2):248-59.

[8] Serafino A, Sinibaldi-Vallebona P, Lazzarino G, Tavazzi B, Rasi G, Pierimarchi P, Andreola F, Moroni G, Galvano G, Galvano F, Garaci E. ” Differentiation of human melanoma cells induced by cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside.” FASEB J. 2004 Dec;18(15):1940-2.

[9] Duthie SJ, Gardner PT, Morrice PC, Wood SG, Pirie L, Bestwick CC, Milne L, Duthie GG. „DNA stability and lipid peroxidation in vitamin E-deficient rats in vivo and colon cells in vitro–modulation by the dietary anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glycoside.” Eur J Nutr. 2005 Jun;44(4):195-203.

[10] Hyun JW, Chung HS. ” Cyanidin and Malvidin from Oryza sativa cv. Heugjinjubyeo mediate cytotoxicity against human monocytic leukemia cells by arrest of G(2)/M phase and induction of apoptosis.”J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Apr 21;52(8):2213-7.

[11] Briviba K, Abrahamse SL, Pool-Zobel BL, Rechkemmer G. „Neurotensin-and EGF-induced metabolic activation of colon carcinoma cells is diminished by dietary flavonoid cyanidin but not by its glycosides.” Nutr Cancer. 2001;41(1-2):172-9. [12] Meiers S, Kemény M, Weyand U, Gastpar R, von Angerer E, Marko D. „The anthocyanidins cyanidin and delphinidin are potent inhibitors of the epidermal growth-factor receptor.” J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Feb;49(2):958-62.

Heart health

Endothelial dysfunction causes the development of atherosclerosis, which can result inheart health problems, including stroke and heart attacks. Cyanidin increases the levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase in a dose-dependent manner and inhibits the formation of reactive oxygen species induced by platelet-derived growth factor, a protein which has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis.

Skin protection

Studies suggest that cyanidin might successfully be employed for skin protection. Ultraviolet radiation of the skin tissue causes production of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress, cell damage and eventual cell death or skin cancer. Cyanidin neutralizes free radicals and decreases the number of tumors induced by ultraviolet B radiation in rats. Treatment of cultured skin cells with cyanidin attenuated unfavorable biological changes caused by the radiation.

Ischemia-reperfusion protection

The strong antioxidant capacity of cyanidin can be beneficial in conditions of increased oxidative stress, such as during a myocardial ischemia, cerebral ischemia or liver ischemia. Myocardial ischemia is a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle, usually due to atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Its risk increases with age, smoking, high cholesterol levels, diabetes and high blood pressure. When blood supply restores after a period of ischemia reperfusion injury to tissue can occur. Cyanidin reduces oxidative damage to organ cells during reperfusion.

  • 2. Malvidin

3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy- 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)chromenium

Malvidin is an anthocyanin. In acidic solutions malvidin has a red color, which turns to blue in alkaline conditions.

Malvidin and its glycosides are responsible for the red to blue color of many food items such as red grapes, cranberries, blueberries and black rice. Malvidin is also responsible for the color of primroses.

Health Benefits of Malvidin

Not many studies have focused on the health effects of malvidin. A German study found a very low absorption of malvidin-3-glucoside in humans after consumption of in red wine or red grape juice[1]. The study suggested that not malvidin-3-glucoside but rather not yet identified anthocyanin metabolites and/or other polyphenols in red wine might be responsible for the observed antioxidant and health effects in humans consuming red wine.


One in-vitro study demonstrated that malvidin is cytotoxic to human leukemia cells [2]. Malvidin stopped the cell cycle in the G(2)/M phase and induced apoptosis. At a concentration of 40 ppm malvidin the growth of the leukemia cells was halved. For this experiment the researchers used malvidin extracted from black rice. It is not know if malvidin has the same protective action in humans.

[1] Bub A, Watzl B, Heeb D, Rechkemmer G, Briviba K. Malvidin-3-glucoside bioavailability in humans after ingestion of red wine, dealcoholized red wine and red grape juice. European Journal of Nutrition. 2001 June;40(3):113-20.

[2] Hyun JW, Chung HS. Cyanidin and Malvidin from Oryza sativa cv. Heugjinjubyeo mediate cytotoxicity against human monocytic leukemia cells by arrest of G(2)/M phase and induction of apoptosis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2004 April 21;52(8):2213-7.


Numerous tea extracts are available in the U.S. as dietary supplements and may be labeled as tea catechins or tea polyphenols. Green tea extracts are the most commonly marketed, but black and oolong tea extracts are also available. Green tea extracts generally have higher levels of catechins (flavanol monomers), while black tea extracts are richer in theaflavins and thearubigins (flavanol polymers found in tea). Oolong tea extracts fall somewhere in between green and black tea extracts with respect to their flavanol content. Some tea extracts contain caffeine, while others are decaffeinated. Flavanol and caffeine content vary considerably among different products, so it is important to check the label or consult the manufacturer to determine the amounts of flavanols and caffeine that would be consumed daily with each supplement. (For more information on tea flavanols, see the Micronutrient Information Center article on Tea and Dr. Higdon’s newsletter article, „Tea and Chronic Disease Prevention.”)

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Green tea catechin controls apoptosis in colon cancer cells by attenuation of H2O2 stimulated COX 2 expression via the AMPK signaling pathway at low dose…/3349061_Dietary_influence_on_pancreatic_ cancer_growth_by_catechin_and_inositol.html
Dietary influence on pancreatic cancer growth by catechin and inositol hexaphosphate.…/131690_Epicatechin_gallate_and_catechin_ gallate_are_superior_to_epigallocatechin_gallate.html
Epicatechin gallate and catechin gallate are superior to epigallocatechin gallate in growth suppression and anti inflammatory activities in pancreatic tumor cells.

Studies on Catechin and Anti-Angiogenic

See also GREEN TEA BELOW for catechins

  • Green Tea (MANY STUDIES)

Green Tea and Breast cancer Green_tea_and_liver_cancer

Studies on Green tea extract and Apoptotic

See also studies cited from last page of DATABASE (4,5102,123,135,155,173, 217, 224, 274, 309, 1123, 11124, 1186)

Studies on EGCG, as can be inferred from the bibliography reported, have basically shown:

a) Anti-oxidant activity and scavenging of the free radicals (similar to vitamin C and E)

b) Stimulation of the detoxification systems, selective induction and modification of the metabolic

enzymes, with a consequent greater formation and excretion of metabolites, the result of a

detoxification process of the organism by oncogenic agents.

c) Inhibition of the factors that activate and develop the tumor, reducing the cellular repetition rate.

d) Ability to induce selective apoptosis for the neoplastic cells alone; the latter has so far been proved, in man, in acute myeloid leukaemia (1186), skin cancer cells and in prostate carcinomas.

e) Ability to stop abnormal cellular growth, acting at the level of growth receptor factors, as has been shown up to now in skin cancers; in this case it seems as if the EGCG block the transduction signal paths associated to growth factors.

f) Inhibitor of gelatinase , responsible for angiogenesis.

g) Inhibitor of telomerasis.

It is a platelet anti-aggregator: as such, its action manifests itself by inhibiting the formation of Thromboxane A2 (with a mechanism similar to that of Aspirin) and of another aggregating agent called PAF (Platelet Activating Factor).

This is because Thromboxane is also the cause of a reduction in the vascular spaces of the arteries, the inhibition of this can forestall ischemic phenomena at cardiac level.

It performs a protective action for the kidneys, and in particular suppresses the production of methyl-Guanidine (a uremic toxin).

Green tea must not be fermented; boil it for no more than 3-5 minutes. Take it early in the morning; it can be drunk in the afternoon too, but not after the early afternoon (15.00-16.00 p.m.).

Basically we get a dry extract from this plant which is used as an infusion: decaffeinated green tea

(less than 0.02% caffeine), with a high content of polyphenols titrated in EGCG (EpiGallo- Catechin-Gallate); heavy metals present in irrelevant quantities (As<0.5 ppm, Pb<0.8 ppm, Cd<0.1 ppm, Hg <0.55 ppm).

The principle action of green tea can be attributed to the polyphenolic catechins, powerful antioxidants that neutralize free radicals. The catechins contained in tea can neutralise carcogenic agents such as nitrosamine and aphlatoxine present in the intestine, in the liver and in the lungs, and can impede the activation of carcinogens.

  • Proanthocyanidins

Pycnogenol, OPC, Oligomeric Procyanidins

Proanthocyanidins are oligomeric flavonoids, mainly found in grapes. They are dimers (see picture) or oligomers of catechin and epicatechin and their gallic acid esters.

Proanthocyanidins are mainly found in the skin and seeds of grapes. They are also present in red wine. During the production of red wine, the juice is left to ferment with the seeds and skins during a few days. During this fermentation process, the formed alcohol will extract the proanthocyanidins from the seeds and skins. Other rich sources are cocoa, apples, peanuts, almonds, cranberries, blueberries and bark of the maritime pine.

Health Benefits of Proanthocyanidins

Consumption of red wine, red grape juice, grape skin and grape seeds has been linked to many health benefits. There are mainly two grape phytochemicals responsible for these benefits: proanthocyanidins and resveratrol. Proanthocyanidins are in the first place very strong antioxidants. Studies have shown that proanthocyanidins act as anti-cancer and anti-allergic agents, and that they improve heart health.


Proanthocyanidins protect against oxidative damage and could reduce the damage caused by tobacco smoking, pollution and free radical form in our body during normal metabolism.

Hearth Disease

Many studies have shown that proanthocyanidins help to prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, reduce blood pressure and improve fat metabolism. The inhibitory action against LDL cholesterol appears to increase with the degree of polymerization of the proanthocyanidin molecules. Proanthocyanidins may prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing the risk associated with high blood cholesterol. Tests with rabbits showed that an extract of grape seed proanthocyanidins significantly reduced the development of aortic atherosclerosis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins have a cardioprotective effect and protect the heart against myocardial injuries induced by isoproterenol, a drug used as an inhaled aerosol to treat asthma.


Studies have shown that proanthocyanidins have anti-cancer and anti-tumour activity. The study by entitled Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit Metastasis of Highly Metastatic Breast Carcinoma Cells (Carcinogenesis. 2006 August) concluded that grape seed proanthocyanidins may possess chemotherapeutic activity against breast cancer.

Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of highly metastatic breast carcinoma cells. 

Carcinogenesis. 2006 August;27(8):1682-91

Phytochemicals may offer protection against metastatic breast cancer. This study investigates the anticancer effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on cultured breast cancer cells and on breast cancer cells implanted in mice. The researchers found that the grape seed proanthocyanidins significant dose-dependant inhibition of the proliferation and viability of the cultured breast cancer cells. The induction of apoptosis involved both caspase activation-dependent and activation-independent pathways. The in-vivo study with mice showed that the intake of grape seed proanthocyanidins significantly inhibited the growth of the implanted breast tumor cells. Also the metastasis of breast cancer cells to other organs was inhibited. The study concluded that grape seed proanthocyanidins may possess anticancer activity against breast cancer.

Anti-Allergic Proanthocyanidins inhibit enzymes that produce histamine and help to ease of allergies.

Facts about Proanthocyanidins

Many plants produce proanthocyanidins in their fruits, bark, leaves and seeds to protect them from predation. Proanthocyanidins give the typical astringency to foods such as wine and teas.

Research Reviews

Protective Effect of Grape Seed Polyphenols against High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress. 


Proanthocyanidins as Antioxidant

Anticancer Activity of Proanthocyanidins

Effect of Procyanidins on Anticancer Drug Doxorubicin


Citrus bioflavonoid supplements may contain glycosides of hesperetin (hesperidin), naringenin (naringin), and eriodictyol (eriocitrin). Hesperidin is also available in hesperidin-complex supplements (114).


The peels of citrus fruits are rich in polymethoxylated flavones: tangeretin, nobiletin, and sinensetin (3). Although dietary intakes of these naturally occurring flavones are generally low, they are often present in citrus bioflavonoid supplements.

  • Apigenin
Breast cancer
Studies on Apigenin and breast cancer –  MANY STUDIES cited in this link…/1682742_Apigenin_inhibits_antiestrogen_ resistant_breast_cancer_cell_growth_through_estrogen.html
Apigenin inhibits antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cell growth through estrogen receptor alpha dependent and estrogen receptor alpha independent…/819815_Apigenin_Induces_Apoptosis_through_ a_Mitochondria_Caspase_Pathway_in_Human.html
Apigenin Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria Caspase Pathway in Human BreastCancer MDA MB 453 Cells. Publication: Journal of clinical biochemistry…/1723574_Apigenin_causes_G2_M_arrest_ associated_with_the_modulation_of.html
Apigenin causes G(2) M arrest associated with the modulation of p21(Cip1) and Cdc2 and activates p53 dependent apoptosis pathway in human breast cancer…/2032136_5_Fluorouracil_combined_with_ apigenin_enhances_anticancer_activity_through_induction.html
5 Fluorouracil combined with apigenin enhances anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer MDA MB 453 cells.…/1612605_Protoapigenone_a_natural_derivative_ of_apigenin_induces_mitogen_activated_protein.html
Protoapigenone, a natural derivative of apigenin, induces mitogen activated protein kinase dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells associated with…/4102298_Apigenin_inhibits_HGF_promoted_ invasive_growth_and_metastasis_involving_blocking.html
Apigenin inhibits HGF promoted invasive growth and metastasis involving blocking PI3K Akt pathway and beta 4 integrin function in MDA MB 231 breast cancer 
Prostate cancer…/1675133_The_chemopreventive_bioflavonoid_ apigenin_inhibits_prostate_cancer_cell_motility_through.html
The chemopreventive bioflavonoid apigenin inhibits prostate cancer cell motility through the focal adhesion kinase Src signaling mechanism.…/928043_Apigenin_induced_prostate_cancer_cell _death_is_initiated_by_reactive.html
Apigenin, a plant flavone, potentially activates wild-type p53 and induces apoptosis incancer cells. We conducted detailed studies to understand its mechanism…/1900455_Plant_flavonoid_apigenin_inactivates_ Akt_to_trigger_apoptosis_in_human.html
We have previously demonstrated that apigenin, a plant flavone, causes decreased survival in human prostate cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism…/2230643_Apigenin_inhibits_the_GLUT_1_ glucose_transporter_and_the_phosphoinositide.html
METHODS : Human pancreatic cancer cells were treated with Apigenin and then underwent glucose uptake assays. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase…/1896290_Apigenin_suppresses_insulin_like_ growth_factor_I_receptor_signaling_in.html
In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of Apigenin action on the IGF/IGF -IR signaling pathway. Exposure of human prostate cancer DU145 cells to…/88047_Apigenin_Down_Regulates_the_Hypoxia _Response_Genes_HIF_1a_GLUT.html
Apigenin Down Regulates the Hypoxia Response Genes: HIF 1a, GLUT 1, and VEGF in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells. Publication: The Journal of surgical…/74318_The_flavonoid_apigenin_potentiates_the _growth_inhibitory_effects_of_gemcitabine.html
The flavonoid apigenin potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of gemcitabine and abrogates gemcitabine resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells.…/4113159_Enhanced_anti_tumor_effect_of_ combination_therapy_with_gemcitabine_and.html
This study was designed to investigate whether combination therapy with gemcitabine and Apigenin enhanced Anti-Tumor efficacy in pancreatic cancer. In vitro 
Ovarian cancer…/2276934_Apigenin_inhibited_migration_and_ invasion_of_human_ovarian_cancer_A2780.html
Apigenin inhibited migration and invasion of human ovarian cancer A2780 cells through focal adhesion kinase.…/883560_Apigenin_inhibits_proliferation_of_ ovarian_cancer_A2780_cells_through_Id1.html
Apigenin inhibits proliferation of ovarian cancer A2780 cells through Id1.…/1766155_Enhancement_of_p53_expression_in_ keratinocytes_by_the_bioflavonoid_apigenin.html
We have reported previously that apigenin, a naturally occurring nonmutagenic flavonoid, increased  Apigenin Phytonutrient Cuts Ovarian Cancer Risk.…/1515609_Apigenin_inhibits_larval_growth_of_ Caenorhabditis_elegans_through_DAF_16.html
Apigenin Phytonutrient Cuts Ovarian Cancer Risk · Natural Aromatase Inhibitors are Best Prevention of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women.
Lung cancer…/969416_Apigenin_induces_caspase_dependent_ apoptosis_in_human_lung_cancer_A549.html
The molecular mechanism and possible signaling pathway of apigenin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human lung cancer cells has not been reported.…/2148516_Apigenin_induces_apoptosis_in_ human_lung_cancer_H460_cells_through.html
Apigenin induces apoptosis in human lung cancer H460 cells through caspase and mitochondria dependent pathways.
Colorectal cancer…/1672549_Molecular_targets_of_apigenin_in_ colorectal_cancer_cells_involvement_of.html
Molecular targets of apigenin in colorectal cancer cells: involvement of p21, NAG 1 and p53.

The dietary flavonoid apigenin enhances the activities of the anti…/263816_The_dietary_flavonoid_apigenin_ enhances_the_activities_of_the_anti.html
CD26 is down-regulated in various cancers including colorectal carcinoma. Apigeninsubstantially up-regulated cell-surface CD26 on HT-29 and HRT-18 
Neuroblastoma…/2825757_Induction_of_caspase_dependent_p53 _mediated_apoptosis_by_apigenin_in.html
Induction of caspase dependent, p53 mediated apoptosis by apigenin in human neuroblastoma. Publication: Molecular cancer therapeutics. Publication Date:…/2938752_Apigenin_induced_apoptosis_through _p53_dependent_pathway_in_human_cervical.html
Apigenin Phytonutrient Cuts Ovarian Cancer Risk · Natural Aromatase Inhibitors are Best Prevention of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women.…/437061_Apigenin_induced_apoptosis_of_ leukemia_cells_is_mediated_by_a.html
Apigenin, a natural plant flavonoid with antiproliferative activity, is emerging as a promising compound for cancer prevention and therapy, but its mechanism of…/1128635_Enhancement_of_UVB_induced_ apoptosis_by_apigenin_in_human_keratinocytes.html
Enhancement of UVB induced apoptosis by apigenin in human keratinocytes and organotypic keratinocyte cultures. Publication: Cancer research. Publication 

Studies on Apigenin and Antiproliferative

Studies on Apigenin and Anti-metastatic

Studies on Catechin and Anti-Angiogenic

Studies on Apigenin and Apoptotic

  • Luteolin

Studies on Luteolin and Anti-Proliferative

Studies on Luteolin and Chemotherapeutic


The flavonol aglycone, quercetin, and its glycoside rutin are available as dietary supplements without a prescription in the U.S. Other names for rutin include rutinoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and sophorin (114). Citrus bioflavonoid supplements may also contain quercetin or rutin.

  • Isorhamnetin

3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-metoxyphenyl)benzopyran-4-on; 3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one

Isorhamnetin is a flavonoid, which occurs naturally in plants, but is also a metabolite of quercetin (isorhamnetin is methylated quercetin).

Red turnip, goldenrod, mustard leaf, ginkgo biloba.

Health Benefits of Isorhamnetin

Isorhamnetin is not that much studied than quercetin. However, the few that exist indicate that isorhamnetin has similar health benefits: it may reduce the risk of cancer, improve heart health and ease diabetes complications.


The anti-cancer effect of isorhamnetin has been demonstrated in in-vivo and in-vitro tests. In-vitro tests with lung cancer cells, liver cancer cells and esophageal cancer cells showed that isorhamnetin induces apoptosis of these cells. An in-vivo experiment with mice that were injected with isorhamnetin showed a reduced tumor weight.

Isorhamnetin is a phytochemical present in many plants and is also a metabolite ofquercetin, which is known to reduce the risk of cancer. There are a few studies which demonstrate similar activity for the isorhamnetin and its glycosides. Researchers, led by Lee HJ, investigated the anticancer effect of isorhamnetin on cultured lung cancer cells and on mice with lung cancer [1]. Their in-vitro study showed that isorhamnetin induced apoptosis, which is mediated by a mitochondria-dependent caspase activation. Their in-vivo test confirmed the anticancer effect of isorhamnetin: injection of the mice with isorhamnetin significantly reduced the weights of tumors. Also in this in-vivo test the researchers found that isorhamnetin acted through caspases-mediated apoptosis.

Another Chinese in-vitro study, lead by Ma G of Sichuan University, concluded that isorhamnetin appears to be a potent drug against esophageal cancer due to its potential to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of cultured esophageal cancer cells [2]. Isorhamnetin significantly reduced the viability of the cancer cells, increased the number of cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase and induced typical apoptotic morphology.

Bao M and co-workers of the East China University of Science and Technology were the first to demonstrate the anticancer effect of isorhamnetin against human liver carcinoma cells. They used isorhamnetin isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Sea Buckthorn [3].

[1] Lee HJ, Lee HJ, Lee EO, Ko SG, Bae HS, Kim CH, Ahn KS, Lu J, Kim SH. ” Mitochondria-cytochrome C-caspase-9 cascade mediates isorhamnetin-induced apoptosis.” Cancer Letters. 2008 July 8.

[2] Ma G, Yang C, Qu Y, Wei H, Zhang T, Zhang N. „The flavonoid component isorhamnetin in vitro inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Eca-109 cells.” Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2007 April 25;167(2):153-60. The Medicine-Biology Laboratory of Life Science, College of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province 610041, People’s Republic of China.

[3] Teng BS, Lu YH, Wang ZT, Tao XY, Wei DZ.” In vitro anti-tumor activity of isorhamnetin isolated from Hippophae rhamnoides L. against BEL-7402 cells.” Pharmacological Research. 2006 September;54(3):186-94.

Heart health

Both quercetin and isorhamnetin help to improve heart health. They improve the endothelial function through their antioxidant action and reduce the oxidation of HDL, resulting in a decreased risk of arteriosclerosis. Isorhamnetin is a potential candidate to explain the reduction of blood pressure and vascular protective effects observed in animal models of hypertension.

Diabetes complications

Some studies have focused on the ability of isorhamnetin to attenuate diabetes complications, such as diabetic cataract, lipid peroxidation and high blood glucose levels.

  • Kaempferol

Campherol, indigo yellow, nimbecetin, 3,4′,5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone

Pure kaempferol is a yellow coloured powder. Amphoral is one of the most important and most widespread flavonoids (containing the typical C6-C3-C6 structure).

Kaempferol is a flavonoid present in various natural sources including apples, onions, leeks, citrus fruits, grapes, red wines, gingko biloba, St. John’s wort.

Health Benefits of Kaempferol

Keampferol is a strong antioxidant and helps to prevent oxidative damage of our cells, lipids and DNA. Kaempferol seems to prevent arteriosclerosis by inhibiting the oxidation of low density lipoprotein and the formation of platelets in the blood. Studies have also confirmed that kaempferol acts as a chemopreventive agent, which means that it inhibits the formation of cancer cells.

An in vitro study by Jan Kowalski et al (Pharmacological Reports, 2005) showed that kaempferol inhibits monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1). MCP-1 plays a role in the initial steps of atherosclerotic plaque formation.


The flavonoids kaempferol and quercetin seems to act synergistically in reducing cell proliferation of cancer cells, meaning that the combined treatments with quercetin and kaempferol are more effective than the additive effects of each flavonoid. This was a conclusion from a study by ML Ackland et al (In Vivo, Feb 2005) titled „Synergistic antiproliferative action of the flavonols quercitin and kaempferol in cultured human cancer cell lines””.

A study „Inhibition of P-glycoprotein function and expression by kaempferol and quercetin” by the Chiang Mai University, Thailand, found that kaempferol can help to fight cancer because it reduces the resistance of cancer cells to anti-cancer drugs such as vinbalstine and paclitaxel.

Studies on Kaempferol and Chemopreventive

  • Myricetin

3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavone, Cannabiscetin, Myricetol, Myricitin

Myricetin is flavonol, consisting of 3-hydroxyflavone backbone and 6 hydroxyl groups. Pure myricetin is a yellow-beige powder crystalline powder. Myricetin mainly occurs in nature in the form of glycosides.

Myricetin is found in several foods such as walnuts, onions, berries, herbs and red grapes.

Health Benefits of Myricetin

Myricetin exerts a wide variety of biological effects, including antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Reports indicate that myricetin has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties and may improve bone-health.


Myricetin has strong anticancer and antimutagenic properties, but it has been shown to promote mutagenesis with the use of the Ames Test. Although the anticancer property of myricetin has been attributed mainly to its antioxidant action, it has additional protective mechanisms.

Myricetin helps to reduce damage to DNA through its direct antioxidant activity and by enhancing DNA repair. A study conducted by University College, Cork, Republic of Ireland, found that a preincubation with the flavonoids before hydrogen peroxide exposure significantly protected the DNA of cells [1]. This study investigated the flavonoids myricetin, quercetin and rutin on cell viability, antioxidant enzyme activities, DNA integrity protective against hydrogen peroxide -induced DNA damage on tow different cell lines. They found no effect of the tested phytochemicals on cell viability, catalase or superoxide dismutase activity. But preincubation with the phytochemicals before hydrogen peroxide exposure significantly protected both cell lines against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage.

A study by the UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Rennes, France, conducted an in-vitro test with liver cells to determine the possible protective action of myricetin on DNA damage, induced by iron [2]. The researchers treated rat hepatocytes with ferric nitrilotriacetate, a toxic iron chelate, in the presence or absence of myricetin. Treatment of the cells with the iron chelate severely increased DNA oxidation and resulted in lipid peroxidation. Simultaneous treatment with myricetin prevented both lipid peroxidation and accumulation of oxidation products in DNA. This study concluded that myricetin might be used in the prevention of liver cancer derived from iron overload pathologies.

Laughton and co-workers of the Department of Biochemistry, University of London King’s College, found that myricetin can have pro-oxidant effect under certain condition, and therefore myricetin and maybe many other phytochemicals cannot be classified simplistically as antioxidants [3]. The researchers tested the protective effects of gossypol, quercetin and myricetin on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and found that they greatly accelerated the generation of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogenperoxide in the presence of Fe3+-EDTA. Quercetin and myricetin accelerated bleomycin-dependent DNA damage in the presence of Fe3+.

[1] Protection by the flavonoids myricetin, quercetin, and rutin against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 and Hep G2 cells. Nutr Cancer. 1999;34(2):160-6.

[2] Repair of iron-induced DNA oxidation by the flavonoid myricetin in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Jun;26(11-12):1457-66.

[3] Antioxidant and pro-oxidant actions of the plant phenolics quercetin, gossypol and myricetin. Effects on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical generation and bleomycin-dependent damage to DNA. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989 Sep 1;38(17):2859-65.


Myricetin has been shown to inhibit the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, a cytokine that promotes the inflammatory response and is involved in inflammatory diseases. Myricetin glucuronide is an inhibitor of lipoxygenase 5-LOX and cyclooxygenases COX-1 and Cox-2.

Heart health

Myricetin and other flavonoids may improve heart health by prevening LDL oxidation and reducing the uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages.


Studies showed that myricetin inhibits the uptake of methylglucose by adipocytes, reduces oxidative injury in diabetes related bone diseases and reduces glucose plasma level in diabetic rats.

Brain health

Myricetin may offer benefits to person with brain diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer’s. Myricetin inhibits ROS production caused by glutamate and reduces glutamate-induced activation of caspase-3. Myricetin restored dopamine level in laboratory animals with induced Parkinsonism. Myricetin may also inhibit beta-amyloid fibril formation in Alzheimer patients.

  • Quercetin

Quercetin is the most abundant of the flavonoids. Quercetin belongs to the flavonoids family and consist of 3 rings and 5 hydroxyl groups. Querctin is also a building block for other flavonoids. Quercetin occurs in food as a aglycone (attached to a sugar molecule). Only a small percentage of the ingested quercetin will get absorbed in the blood.

Quercetin is found in many common foods including apple, tea, onion, nuts, berries, cauliflower and cabbage.

Health Benefits of Quercetin

Quercetin, a member of the flavonoids family, exerts many beneficial health effects, including improvement of cardiovascular health, reducing risk for cancer, protection against osteoporosis. This phytochemical has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and antitoxic effects. Most of these properties are linked to its strong antioxidant action of quercetin but quercetin also modulates the expression of specific enzymes. Quercetin induces apoptosis and influences protein and lipid kinase signaling pathways. Quercetin is a candidate for preventing obesity-related diseases.


Quercetin may help to reduce symptoms of diabetes patients. One study showed that quercetin reduced blood glucose level and improved improved plasma insulin levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. An in-vitro study concluded that quercetin may have a pharmacological application in treating cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus patients.


Quercetin shows anti-inflammatory action by its direct antioxidant action and inhibition of inflammatory mediators and enzymes, such as lipoxygenase. Quercetin also inhibits the release of histamine, which causes congestion, by basophils and mast cells. Studies have shown an improved lung function and lower risk of certain respiratory diseases (asthma and bronchitis) for people with high apple (rich in quercetin) intake. Patients with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress might benefit most from a quercetin supplementation.


Studies have shown that quercetin reduces cancer risk of prostate, ovary, breast, gastric and colon cells. Numerous in-vitro studies show that quercetin induces apoptosis of cancer cells through different mechanisms.

Oxidative DNA damage is a known risk factor of cancer. Antioxidants, such as quercetin, are thought to play a important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. A study by the Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea, tried to determine which phytochemicals were responsible for the anti-cancer effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract, as indicated by previous studies. Kang en coworkers found that quercetin and kaempferol induced induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in cultured oral cavity cancer cells and concluded that both phytochemicals could be considered as possible anti-oral cavity cancer agents [1]. An in-vitro study conducted on several glioma cell lines by scientists of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, demonstrated that a combined treatment of quercetin and resveratrol synergistically improved their antitumor activity, thereby reducing the therapeutic concentration needed for glioma treatment [2]. Low doses of resveratrol or quercetin separately had no effect on apoptosis induction, but had a strong effect on caspase 3 and caspases 7 activation when administered together.

Scientists of the Henan University, China, concluded that quercetin could improve therapeutic index of doxorubicin, a drug used in cancer chemotherapy, by its opposing effects on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha in tumor and normal cells [3]. They considered quercetin as a promising candidate as anti-cancer agents. Doxorubicin is commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers, including hematological malignancies, many types of carcinoma and soft tissue sarcomas. However, treatment with doxorubicin has many side effects, such as a decrease in white blood cells, hair loss, cardiotoxicity and immune suppression. The scientists tested the effect of quercetin on the therapeutic index of doxorubicin in breast tumor cells and spleen cells. Their in-vitro test showed that quercetin reversed cell resistance to doxorubicin under hypoxia and protected spleen cells against cytotoxicity. In-vivo tests with mouse with 4T1 breast cancer cells showed that quercetin suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival. Quercetin enhanced therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin and reduced toxic side effects. Another Chinese study by Shan and Wang of the Hebei Medical University, investigated the effects of quercetin on the growth of the colon carcinoma cells and the regulation effect of quercetin on the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway [4]. They found that quercetin reduced colon cancer cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Quercetin downregulated the transcription and protein expression of cyclin D1 and survivin. Cyclins are a family of proteins which control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase enzymes. The decrease in survivin, which is a contributing factor to chemotherapy resistance and apoptosis induction therapies, would render the cancer cells more prone to such cancer treatments. The phytochemical also reduced the expressiony of beta-catenin/Tcf in the colon cancer cells transiently transfected with the TCF4 reporter gene.

Chinese researchers demonstrated that quercetin can inhibit the growth of HeLa cells and induce their apoptosis [5]. HeLa cells are special cells used in cancer research. They proliferate abnormally rapidly and have an active version of the enzyme telomerase , which prevents the incremental shortening of telomeres that is implicated in aging and eventual cell death. The researchers studied the effects of quercetin on proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration and invasion of HeLa cells. They found that quercetin inhibited the growth of HeLa cells and inducing apoptosis of the cells. The phytochemical also inhibited adhesion, migration and invasion of the cells. They concluded that quercetin may play an antimetastatic role. Aalinkeel and co-workers at State University of New York found that quercetin inhibited cell growth and induced cell death of prostate cancer cells, while exerting no effect on normal prostate epithelial cells [6]. The scientists showed that quercetin promoted cancer cell apoptosis by down-regulating the levels of heat shock protein Hsp90. This protein appears to induce apoptosis through inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Quercetin may also have anti-mutagenic properties. A group of scientists lead by Gupta of the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Mohali,India, found that quercetin may be a potential candidate as chemoprotectant [7]. They came to this conclusion after treating rats, which were exposed to the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (found in tobacco smoke and processed meat) with quercetin. The hepatocarcinogen increased malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione levels in the liver, and increased plasma levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. Treatment of the rats with quercetin restored these levels and also reduced diethylnitrosamine induced DNA damage and apoptosis.

[1] Kaempferol and quercetin, components of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in oral cavity cancer cells. Phytother Res. 2009 Jul 7.

[2] Resveratrol and quercetin cooperate to induce senescence-like growth arrest in C6 rat glioma cells. Cancer Sci. 2009 May 12.

[3] Quercetin greatly improved therapeutic index of doxorubicin against 4T1 breast cancer by its opposing effects on HIF-1alpha in tumor and normal cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 May 26.

[4] Quercetin inhibit human SW480 colon cancer growth in association with inhibition of cyclin D1 and survivin expression through Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Cancer Invest. 2009 Jul;27(6):604-12.

[5] Effects of quercetin on proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and invasion of HeLa cells. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2009;30(1):60-4.

[6] The dietary bioflavonoid, quercetin, selectively induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by down-regulating the expression of heat shock protein 90. Prostate. 2008 Dec 1;68(16):1773-89.

[7] Antioxidant and antimutagenic effect of quercetin against DEN induced hepatotoxicity in rat. Phytother Res. 2009 Jun 5.

other studies

Studies on Quercetin and Radioprotective on Quercetin and Antiproliferative

Studies on Quercetin and Antimutagenic

Heart disease

Studies demonstrate that flavonoid-rich diets protect against myocardial infarction and stroke. As many other flavonoids, quercetin inhibits oxidation of LDL (bad) cholesterol, lowers blood pressure and reduces the risk of heart disease.


Quercetin supplementation has been linked with improved performance, but supporting evidence is week and often conflicting. Scientists suggest that quercetin may aid performance through its anti-inflammatory properties or by stimulating the activity of mitochondria.

Research Reviews

Dietary Intakes of Flavonols, Flavones and Isoflavones by Japanese Women and the Inverse Correlation between Quercetin Intake and Plasma LDL Cholesterol Concentration

Tissue Distribution of Quercetin in Rats and Pigs

The Effect of Quercetin on SW480 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells: a Proteomic Study

Quercetin inhibits eNOS, microtubule polymerization, and mitotic progression in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

Rat Gastrointestinal Tissues Metabolize Quercetin

  • Rutin

Rutoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside and sophorin

Rutin is a bioflavonoid. Pure rutin is yellow or yellow-green colored needle-shaped crystal. Rutin is a flavonol glycoside comprised of the quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose (rhamnose and glucose).

Rutin is found in many plants, fruits and vegetables. The richest source is buckwheat. Rutin is also found in citrus fruits, noni, black tea, apple peel. During digestion much of the rutin is metabolized to its aglycone, quercetin.

Health Benefits of Rutin

Rutin has strong antioxidant properties. Rutin has also the property to chelate metal ions, such as iron, thereby reducing the Fenton reaction (production damaging oxygen radicals). Rutin also seems to stabilize vitamin C. If rutin is taken together with vitamin C, the activity of ascorbic will be intensified.

Rutin is important because it strengthens capillaries and can help people who bruise or bleed easily. Studies have demonstrated that rutin can help to stop venous edema, that is an early sign of chronic venous disease of the leg.

Rutin has anti-inflammatory effects. Animal studies have shown that rutin has preventive and healing effects.

There are indications that rutin can inhibit some cancerous and pre-cancerous conditions.

Rutin may help to prevent atherogenesis and reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL-cholesterol.…/2096751_Transformation_of_Rutin_to_ Antiproliferative_Quercetin_3_glucoside_by_Aspergillus.html
Transformation of Rutin to Antiproliferative Quercetin 3 glucoside by Aspergillus  andRutin were compared using six different cancer cell lines including colon,…/2173127_Rutin_inhibits_hydrogen_peroxide_ induced_apoptosis_through_regulating_reactive_oxygen.html
Rutin inhibits hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis through regulating reactive  State Key Lab of Biotherapy of Human Diseases, Cancer Center, West China…/1203691_Rutin_inhibits_nitric_oxide_and_ tumor_necrosis_factor_alpha_production.html
Institution: Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, India.  The effect of rutin, a flavonoid present in onions, apples, tea and red wine, on the production of…/858315_Gastroprotective_effect_of_rutin_ against_indomethacin_induced_ulcers_in_rats.html
Gastroprotective effect of rutin against indomethacin induced ulcers in rats.  Antioxidant-Rich Capers Could Protect Consumers from Cancer Effects of Meat…/155709_Rutin_inhibits_human_leukemia_tumor _growth_in_a_murine_xenograft.html
Rutin inhibits human leukemia tumor growth in a murine xenograft model in vivo. Antioxidant-Rich Capers Could Protect Consumers from Cancer Effects of…/65547_Hammada_scoparia_flavonoids_and_ rutin_kill_adherent_and_chemoresistant_leukemic.html
Hammada scoparia flavonoids and rutin kill adherent and chemoresistant leukemic Antioxidant-Rich Capers Could Protect Consumers from Cancer Effects of 


  • Genistein

5, 7-dihydroxy-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, 4′, 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone


Genistein is one of the most abundant isoflavones in soy. Isoflavones belong to the group of flavonoids. Because of its similar structure to that of human estrogen it is also called a phytoestrogen, together with daidzein. Genistein is derived from the hydrolysis of the glycoside genistin.DistributionThe main source of genistein are soybeans. Other legumes, such as chickpeas, contain small amounts of genistein.Health Benefits of GenisteinGenistein has may health benefits and works on several fronts: it acts as a phytoestrogens, antioxidant, anti-cancer agent and it could help people with metabolic syndrome.Estrogenic effectThe estrogenic activity of genistein has been confirmed in many studies. Of all the isoflavones, genistein has the strongest estrogenic activity. The estrogenic effect of genistein may explain its protective action against osteoporosis and its possible effect onbody weight reductions. Genistein is also used to ease menopause symptoms, such as hot flushes.AntioxidantGenistein is a strong antioxidant. Genistein removes damaging free radicals and reduces lipid peroxidation. Genistein increases the activity of other antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. Studies have shown that genistein can also influence the growth of cells which are not hormone-dependent.AnticancerGenistein seems to reduce the risk for some hormone related cancers, principally breast cancer and prostate cancer. Epidemiological studies show that consumption of isoflavones may protect against breast and prostate cancer. High dietary intake of soy products China and Japan are linked with low incidence of these cancers. There are lots of theories to explain the anti-cancer action of genistein: inhibition of angiogenesis, inhibition of tyrosine kinases, antioxidant property, and anti-estrogen action (it is known that estrogen increases risk for certain cancers). Genistein binds with estrogen receptors, preventing the estrogen from binding and initiating cancer growth.Studies on Genistein and cancer

Genistein inhibits growth of estrogen-independent human breast cancer cells in culture but not in athymic mice.
2000 The Journal of nutritionGenistein reverses hypermethylation and induces active histone modifications in tumor suppressor gene B-Cell translocation gene 3 in prostate cancer.
2010 CancerGenistein suppresses the invasive potential of human breast cancer cells through transcriptional regulation of metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors.
2005 International journal of oncologyConcentration-dependent effects of Genistein on global gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: an oligo microarray study.
2008 Breast cancer research and treatmentMolecular evidence for increased antitumor activity of gemcitabine by Genistein in vitro and in vivo using an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.
2005 Cancer researchThe molecular basis of genistein-induced mitotic arrest and exit of self-renewal in embryonal carcinoma and primary cancer cell lines.
2008 BMC medical genomics

Genistein: breast cancer protection and in vivo mechanisms of action.
1999 Journal of medicinal food

Regulation of gene expression and inhibition of experimental prostate cancer bone metastasis by dietary genistein.
2004 Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)

Expression of prostate-specific antigen is transcriptionally regulated by Genistein in prostate cancer cells.
2002 Molecular carcinogenesis

Dietary genistin stimulates growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors similar to that observed with genistein.
2001 Carcinogenesis

Genistein induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via stable activation of ERK1/2 pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
2008 Cell biology and toxicology

Genistein mechanisms and timing of prostate cancer chemoprevention in lobund-wistar rats.
2009 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP

Genistein in the presence of 17beta-estradiol inhibits proliferation of ERbeta breastcancer cells.
2009 Pharmacology

Low concentrations of the soy phytoestrogen Genistein induce proteinase inhibitor 9 and block killing of breast cancer cells by immune cells.
2008 Endocrinology

Genistein affects HER2 protein concentration, activation, and promoter regulation in BT-474 human breast cancer cells.
2007 Endocrine

Genistein-induced apoptosis and autophagocytosis in ovarian cancer cells.
2007 Gynecologic oncology

Genistein represses telomerase activity via both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells.
2006 Cancer research

Combination of 5-fluorouracil and Genistein induces apoptosis synergistically in chemo-resistant cancer cells through the modulation of AMPK and COX-2 signaling pathways.
2005 Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Genistein induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells via activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathways.
2009 Cell biology international

MEK4 function, Genistein treatment, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells.
2009 Journal of the National cancer Institute

Involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in apoptosis induced byGenistein in human cervical cancer cells.
2009 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Inhibition of prostate specific antigen expression by Genistein in prostate cancercells.
2000 International journal of oncology

Dietary genistein: perinatal mammary cancer prevention, bioavailability and toxicity testing in the rat.
1998 Carcinogenesis

Induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 by genistein.
1999 Oncogene

Prevention of metastatic pancreatic cancer growth in vivo by induction of apoptosis with genistein, a naturally occurring isoflavonoid.
2003 Pancreas

Genistein inversely affects tubulin-binding agent-induced apoptosis in human breastcancer cells.
2004 Biochemical pharmacology

Potent Genistein derivatives as inhibitors of estrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer.
2011 Cancer biology & therapy

Influence of Genistein isoflavone on matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in prostate cancer cells.
2006 Journal of medicinal food

Caffeine overcomes genistein-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells.
2008 Nutrition and cancer

[Regulation of Genistein on the levels of ERalpha, ERbeta mRNA in uterine endometrial cancer cells].
2005 Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences

Inhibition of nuclear factor kappab activity by Genistein is mediated via Notch-1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells.
2006 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Genistein chemoprevention of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice.
2007 Journal of carcinogenesis

Soy isoflavone Genistein induces cell death in breast cancer cells through mobilization of endogenous copper ions and generation of reactive oxygen species.
2010 Molecular nutrition & food research

The role of Genistein and synthetic derivatives of isoflavone in cancer prevention and therapy.
2006 Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry

Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of docetaxel are enhanced by Genisteinthrough regulation of osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK)/RANK ligand/MMP-9 signaling in prostate cancer.
2006 Cancer research

Physiologically achievable concentrations of Genistein enhance telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells via the activation of STAT3.
2007 Carcinogenesis

BRCA1 and BRCA2 as molecular targets for phytochemicals indole-3-carbinol andGenistein in breast and prostate cancer cells.
2006 British journal of cancer

Genistein, a soy isoflavone, enhances necrotic-like cell death in a breast cancer cell treated with a chemotherapeutic agent.
2003 Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology

Potentiation of the radiation effect with Genistein in cervical cancer cells.
2005 Gynecologic oncology

Genistein induces the p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4a tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells by epigenetic mechanisms involving active chromatin modification.
2008 Cancer research

Sensitization of the apoptotic effect of gamma-irradiation in genistein-pretreated CaSki cervical cancer cells.
2008 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology

Regulation of minichromosome maintenance gene family by microRNA-1296 andGenistein in prostate cancer.
2010 Cancer research

BTG3 tumor suppressor gene promoter demethylation, histone modification and cell cycle arrest by Genistein in renal cancer.
2009 Carcinogenesis

Phytoestrogens and breast cancer: a complex story.
2008 Inflammopharmacology

Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by genistein.
2008 Cancer letters

Genistein induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via different molecular pathways depending on Breast cancer Susceptibility gene-1 (BRCA1) status.
2008 European journal of pharmacology

Anti-cancer effect of Genistein in oral squamous cell carcinoma with respect to angiogenesis and in vitro invasion.
2003 Cancer science

Soy isoflavone Genistein induces cell death in breast cancer cells through mobilization of endogenous copper ions and generation of reactive oxygen species.
2011 Molecular nutrition & food research

Genistein inhibits NF-kappa B activation in prostate cancer cells.
1999 Nutrition and cancer

p53-independent apoptosis induced by Genistein in lung cancer cells.
1999 Nutrition and cancer

Detrimental effect of cancer preventive phytochemicals silymarin, Genistein and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on epigenetic events in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.
2001 The Prostate

Down-regulation of invasion and angiogenesis-related genes identified by cDNA microarray analysis of PC3 prostate cancer cells treated with genistein.
2002 Cancer letters

Using DNA microarray analyses to elucidate the effects of Genistein in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells: identification of novel targets.
2004 Molecular carcinogenesis

Gene expression profiles of genistein-treated PC3 prostate cancer cells.
2002 The Journal of nutrition

Protection against breast cancer with genistein: a component of soy.
2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition

Inactivation of NF-kappaB by Genistein is mediated via Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer cells.
2003 Oncogene

Effects of selenite and Genistein on G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.
2009 Nutrition and cancer

Inactivation of nuclear factor kappaB by soy isoflavone Genistein contributes to increased apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer cells.
2005 Cancer research

Additive effects of trastuzumab and Genistein on human breast cancer cells.
2011 Anti-cancer drugs

Combined effects of terazosin and Genistein on a metastatic, hormone-independent human prostate cancer cell line.
2009 Cancer letters

Pro-apoptotic effect and cytotoxicity of Genistein and genistin in human ovariancancer SK-OV-3 cells.
2007 Life sciences

Mechanism involved in Genistein activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression in human breast cancer cells.
2007 The British journal of nutrition

Akt GSK-3 pathway as a target in genistein-induced inhibition of TRAMP prostatecancer progression toward a poorly differentiated phenotype.
2007 Carcinogenesis

In vitro and in vivo molecular evidence of Genistein action in augmenting the efficacy of cisplatin in pancreatic cancer.
2007 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Lycopene and other carotenoids inhibit estrogenic activity of 17beta-estradiol andGenistein in cancer cells.
2007 Breast cancer research and treatment

Complementary actions of docosahexaenoic acid and Genistein on COX-2, PGE2 and invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
2007 Carcinogenesis

Potentiation of the effect of erlotinib by Genistein in pancreatic cancer: the role of Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB.
2006 Cancer research

Genistein inhibits cell growth by modulating various mitogen-activated protein kinases and AKT in cervical cancer cells.
2009 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

AKT and p21 WAF1/CIP1 as potential Genistein targets in BRCA1-mutant human breastcancer cell lines.
2010 Anticancer research

Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics addressing the estrogen receptor subtype-mediated effects in T47D breast cancer cells exposed to the phytoestrogen genistein.
2011 Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP

Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity in head and neck cancer cells by genistein.
2004 Cancer letters

[Enhancing effect of isoflavonoid Genistein on radiosensitivity of DU145 prostatecancer cells].
2004 Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences

Apoptosis-inducing effect of chemotherapeutic agents is potentiated by soy isoflavone genistein, a natural inhibitor of NF-kappaB in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cell line.
2004 Pancreas

Anticarcinogenic effects of isoflavones may be mediated by Genistein in mouse mammary tumor virus-induced breast cancer.
2002 Oncology

Genistein induces Ca2+ -mediated, calpain/caspase-12-dependent apoptosis in breastcancer cells.
2004 Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Combination of Genistein with ionizing radiation on androgen-independent prostatecancer cells.
2004 Asian journal of andrology

Genistein potentiates inhibition of tumor growth by radiation in a prostate cancerorthotopic model.
2004 Molecular cancer therapeutics

Genistein potentiates inhibition of tumor growth by radiation in a prostate cancerorthotopic model.
2004 Molecular cancer therapeutics

Targeting colon cancer cells with genistein-17.1A immunoconjugate.
2003 International journal of oncology

Inhibitory effect of Genistein and daidzein on ovarian cancer cell growth.
2004 Anticancer research

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) is induced by Genisteinthrough the expression of p53 in colorectal cancer cells.
2003 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Chemosensitivity of human prostate cancer cells PC3 and LNCaP to Genisteinisoflavone and beta-lapachone.
2002 Biology of the cell / under the auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization

Genistein, a soy isoflavone, induces glutathione peroxidase in the human prostatecancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3.
2002 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Genistein blocks breast cancer cells in the G(2)M phase of the cell cycle.
2000 Journal of cellular biochemistry

Estrogen-induced angiogenic factors derived from stromal and cancer cells are differently regulated by enterolactone and Genistein in human breast cancer in vivo.
2010 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Sensitization of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by genistein: the role of NF-kappaB.
2008 Journal of ovarian research

Combined cetuximab and Genistein treatment shows additive anti-cancer effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma.
2010 Cancer letters

Involvement of the estrogen receptor beta in genistein-induced expression of p21(waf1/cip1) in PC-3 prostate cancer cells.
2008 Anticancer research

Modulation of gene methylation by Genistein or lycopene in breast cancer cells.
2008 Environmental and molecular mutagenesis

Identification of a biphasic role for Genistein in the regulation of prostate cancergrowth and metastasis.
2009 Cancer research

Genistein derivative, ITB-301, induces microtubule depolymerization and mitotic arrest in multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer.
2011 Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology

Genistein mediated histone acetylation and demethylation activates tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells.
2008 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Dietary Genistein inhibits metastasis of human prostate cancer in mice.
2008 Cancer research

Genistein and resveratrol: mammary cancer chemoprevention and mechanisms of action in the rat.
2006 Expert review of anticancer therapy

Genistein and daidzein downregulate prostate androgen-regulated transcript-1 (PART-1) gene expression induced by dihydrotestosterone in human prostate LNCaPcancer cells.
2003 The Journal of nutrition

Soy isoflavone Genistein in prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.
2008 Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases

Genistein-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells involves calpain-caspase and apoptosis signaling kinase 1-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation cascades.
2007 Anti-cancer drugs

Prostate cancer treatment is enhanced by Genistein in vitro and in vivo in a syngeneic orthotopic tumor model.
2006 Radiation research

Caspase-3 status is a determinant of the differential responses to Genistein between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
2007 Biochimica et biophysica acta

Plasma enterolactone and Genistein and the risk of premenopausal breast cancer.
2006 European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the Europeancancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)

Genistein inhibits matrix metalloproteinase type 2 activation and prostate cancer cell invasion by blocking the transforming growth factor beta-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2-27-kDa heat shock protein pathway.
2006 Molecular pharmacology

Dietary Genistein reduces metastasis in a postsurgical orthotopic breast cancermodel.
2005 Cancer research

Genistein sensitizes inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on the growth of estrogen receptor-positive and HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cells.
2007 Molecular carcinogenesis

Genistein inhibits the contact-stimulated migration of prostate cancer cells.
2007 Cellular & molecular biology letters

Increased therapeutic potential of an experimental anti-mitotic inhibitor SB715992 byGenistein in PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line.
2006 BMC cancer

Genistein-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells.
2006 The Prostate

Inhibitory effect of Genistein on mouse colon cancer MC-26 cells involved TGF-beta1/Smad pathway.
2005 Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Genistein potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in DU145 human prostate cancer cells: role of the direct inhibition of CYP24 enzyme activity.
2005 Molecular and cellular endocrinology

Genistein and daidzein induce cell proliferation and their metabolites cause oxidative DNA damage in relation to isoflavone-induced cancer of estrogen-sensitive organs.
2004 Biochemistry

Delayed activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 is involved in genistein- and equol-induced cell proliferation and estrogen-receptor-alpha-mediated transcription in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
2010 The Journal of nutritional biochemistry

Genistein synergizes with RNA interference inhibiting survivin for inducing DU-145 of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis.
2009 Cancer letters

Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and sulfotransferases contribute significantly to the disposition of Genistein in mouse intestine.
2010 The AAPS journal

Anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effect of Genistein alone or in combination with capsaicin in TPA-treated rat mammary glands or mammary cancer cell line.
2009 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

MicroRNAs 221/222 and genistein-mediated regulation of ARHI tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer.
2011 Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)

A novel anti-cancer effect of genistein: reversal of epithelial mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells.
2008 Acta pharmacologica Sinica

Dietary Genistein negates the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells implanted in athymic mice.
2002 Cancer research

P21 response to DNA damage induced by Genistein and etoposide in human lungcancer cells.
2003 Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Genistein-induced upregulation of p21WAF1, downregulation of cyclin B, and induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
1998 Nutrition and cancer

Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of c-erbB-2 in MDA-MB-435 cells by genistein.
1999 International journal of oncology

Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis by Genistein in colon cancerHT-29 cells.
2004 Cancer letters

Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis by Genistein in colon cancerHT-29 cells.
2004 Cancer letters

Genistein alone or combined with cyclophosphamide may stimulate 16/C transplantable mouse mammary cancer growth.
2004 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

Genistein alone or combined with cyclophosphamide may stimulate 16/C transplantable mouse mammary cancer growth.
2004 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

Genistein enhances insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway in human breastcancer (MCF-7) cells.
2004 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

Modulation of androgen receptor-dependent transcription by resveratrol andGenistein in prostate cancer cells.
2004 The Prostate

Calcitriol and Genistein actions to inhibit the prostaglandin pathway: potential combination therapy to treat prostate cancer.
2007 The Journal of nutrition

Pleotropic effects of Genistein on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
2003 International journal of molecular medicine

[Effect of Genistein on expression of angiogenesis related factors in HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells].
2004 Shi yan sheng wu xue bao

The antioxidant effects of Genistein are associated with AMP-activated protein kinase activation and PTEN induction in prostate cancer cells.
2010 Journal of medicinal food

In vitro studies on the modification of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity in prostatecancer cells by incubation with Genistein and estradiol.
2008 Radiation oncology (London, England)

Effect of Genistein on p90RSK phosphorylation and cell proliferation in T47D breastcancer cells.
2011 Anticancer research

Lipid raft cholesterol and Genistein inhibit the cell viability of prostate cancer cells via the partial contribution of EGFR-Akt/p70S6k pathway and down-regulation of androgen receptor.
2010 Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Breast cancer cell response to Genistein is conditioned by BRCA1 mutations.
2009 Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Genistein enhances the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and inhibits nuclear factor kappa B in nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines.
2009 Cancer

Effective chemopreventive activity of Genistein against human breast cancer cells.
2006 Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology

Identification of both Myt-1 and Wee-1 as necessary mediators of the p21-independent inactivation of the cdc-2/cyclin B1 complex and growth inhibition of TRAMP cancercells by genistein.
2006 The Prostate

Genistein and quercetin increase connexin43 and suppress growth of breast cancercells.
2007 Carcinogenesis

3,3′-Diindolylmethane and Genistein decrease the adverse effects of estrogen in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells.
2008 The Journal of nutrition

Synthetic conjugates of Genistein affecting proliferation and mitosis of cancer cells.
2011 Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry

Alterations of metastasis-related genes identified using an oligonucleotide microarray of genistein-treated HCC1395 breast cancer cells.
2007 Nutrition and cancer

Genistein induces the metastasis suppressor kangai-1 which mediates its anti-invasive effects in TRAMP cancer cells.
2007 Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Combined treatment of ionizing radiation with Genistein on cervical cancer HeLa cells.
2006 Journal of pharmacological sciences

Molecular effects of the isoflavonoid Genistein in prostate cancer.
2005 Clinical prostate cancer

In vitro effects of Genistein on the synthesis and distribution of glycosaminoglycans/proteoglycans by estrogen receptor-positive and -negative human breast cancer epithelial cells.
2002 Anticancer research

Daidzein effect on hormone refractory prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo compared to Genistein and soy extract: potentiation of radiotherapy.
2010 Pharmaceutical research

Genistein depletes telomerase activity through cross-talk between genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.
2009 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

The role of early life Genistein exposures in modifying breast cancer risk.
2008 British journal of cancer

Glucuronidation of the soyabean isoflavones Genistein and daidzein by human liver is related to levels of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 activity and alters isoflavone response in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.
2008 The Journal of nutritional biochemistry

The effect of Genistein aglycone on cancer and cancer risk: a review of in vitro, preclinical, and clinical studies.
2009 Nutrition reviews

Genetic and epigenetic regulations of prostate cancer by genistein.
2009 Drug news & perspectives

Genistein-selenium combination induces growth arrest in prostate cancer cells.
2010 Journal of medicinal food

The combination of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) and Genistein is effective in inhibiting pancreatic cancer growth.
2004 Pancreas

Genistein induces apoptosis and topoisomerase II-mediated DNA breakage in coloncancer cells.
2000 European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)

Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and Genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent.
2004 The Journal of nutrition

Effects of Genistein and synergistic action in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid on the growth of breast cancer cell lines.
2000 Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology

Soya intake and plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein: validity of dietary assessment among eighty British women (Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and Nutrition).
2001 The British journal of nutrition

Genistein induces Gadd45 gene and G2/M cell cycle arrest in the DU145 human prostate cancer cell line.
2004 FEBS letters

Vitamin D receptor and p21/WAF1 are targets of Genistein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human prostate cancer cells.
2004 Cancer research

Dietary Genistein negates the inhibitory effect of letrozole on the growth of aromatase-expressing estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7Ca) in vivo.
2008 Carcinogenesis

Early induction of LDL receptor gene expression by Genistein in DLD-1 colon cancercell line.
2008 Fitoterapia

2′-hydroxylation of Genistein enhanced antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in mcf-7 human breast cancer cells.
2009 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology

Effect of Genistein on cholesterol metabolism-related genes in a colon cancer cell line.
2008 Genes & nutrition

Use of cross species genomic profiling identifies pathways and genes differentially regulated in prostate cancer cells treated with soy protein isolates or purified genistein.
2010 Cancer genomics & proteomics

Gene expression profiling in response to estradiol and Genistein in ovarian cancercells.
2009 Cancer genomics & proteomics

Genistein and daidzein act on a panel of genes implicated in cell cycle and angiogenesis by polymerase chain reaction arrays in human prostate cancer cell lines.
2010 Cancer epidemiology

Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and actions by Genistein in human prostatecancer cells and by soy isoflavones in prostate cancer patients.
2009 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Antibodies directed against L1-CAM synergize with Genistein in inhibiting growth and survival pathways in SKOV3ip human ovarian cancer cells.
2008 Cancer letters

Antitumor and antiangiogenic activity of soy isoflavone Genistein in mouse models of melanoma and breast cancer.
2006 Oncology reports

Modulation of the constitutive activated STAT3 transcription factor in pancreaticcancer prevention: effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and genistein.
2004 Anticancer research

[Effects of ERK5 MAPK signaling transduction pathway on the inhibition of Genisteinto breast cancer cells].
2006 Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research

Genistein inhibits radiation-induced activation of NF-kappaB in prostate cancer cells promoting apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest.
2006 BMC cancer

Stimulatory effect of Genistein and apigenin on the growth of breast cancer cells correlates with their ability to activate ER alpha.
2006 Breast cancer research and treatment

Effects of the natural isoflavonoid Genistein on growth, signaling pathways and gene expression of matrix macromolecules by breast cancer cells.
2006 Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry

Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt induced by combination of photoactivated hypericin and Genistein in human breast cancer cells.
2010 Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology

Effect of sulphation on the oestrogen agonist activity of the phytoestrogensGenistein and daidzein in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
2008 The Journal of endocrinology

Protection of p53 wild type cells from taxol by Genistein in the combined treatment of lung cancer.
2010 Nutrition and cancer

Genistein and resveratrol, alone and in combination, suppress prostate cancer in SV-40 tag rats.
2009 The Prostate

Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB activation in PC3 cells by Genistein is mediated via Akt signaling pathway.
2002 Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association forcancer Research

Soy isoflavones and cancer prevention.
2003 Cancer investigation

[Effects of Genistein on NOS, GSH-Px activities and NO, GSH, MDA contents in MCF human breast cancer cells].
2004 Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research

Cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of synthetic Genistein glycosides against humancancer cell lines.
2004 Cancer letters

Estrogen receptor beta mRNA in colon cancer cells: growth effects of estrogen and genistein.
2000 Biochemical and biophysical research communications

The inhibitory effect of curcumin, genistein, quercetin and cisplatin on the growth of oral cancer cells in vitro.
2000 Anticancer research

Genistein: does it prevent or promote breast cancer?
2000 Environmental health perspectives

The differential inhibitory effects of Genistein on the growth of cervical cancer cells in vitro.
2001 Neoplasma

Effects of soy phytoestrogens Genistein and daidzein on breast cancer growth.
2001 The Annals of pharmacotherapy

The mutant androgen receptor T877A mediates the proliferative but not the cytotoxic dose-dependent effects of Genistein and quercetin on human LNCaP prostatecancer cells.
2002 Molecular pharmacology

DING, a Genistein target in human breast cancer: a protein without a gene.
2003 The Journal of nutrition

Apoptosis of human primary gastric carcinoma cells induced by genistein.
2004 World journal of gastroenterology : WJG

A combination of indol-3-carbinol and Genistein synergistically induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and progression of autophagy.
2009 Molecular cancer

FoxM1 is a novel target of a natural agent in pancreatic cancer.
2010 Pharmaceutical research

Effects of a genistein-rich extract on PSA levels in men with a history of prostate cancer.
2004 Urology

Pharmacological activities of Genistein, an isoflavone from soy (Glycine max): part I–anti-cancer activity.
2001 Indian journal of experimental biology

Genistein and 17beta-estradiol, but not equol, regulate vitamin D synthesis in human colon and breast cancer cells.
2006 Anticancer research

Genistein stimulates growth of human breast cancer cells in a novel, postmenopausal animal model, with low plasma estradiol concentrations.
2006 Carcinogenesis

Genistein inhibits p38 map kinase activation, matrix metalloproteinase type 2, and cell invasion in human prostate epithelial cells.
2005 Cancer research

Inhibitory effect of isoflavones on prostate cancer cells and PTEN gene.
2006 Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES

Modulation of microRNA associated with ovarian cancer cells by genistein.
2009 European journal of gynaecological oncology

Genistein increases gene expression by demethylation of WNT5a promoter in coloncancer cell line SW1116.
2010 Anticancer research

Lung cancer prevention with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate using monitoring by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1.
2002 International journal of oncology

The role of beta-glucuronidase in induction of apoptosis by Genistein combined polysaccharide (GCP) in xenogeneic mice bearing human mammary cancer cells.
2003 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

A comparative study of growth-inhibitory effects of isoflavones and their metabolites on human breast and prostate cancer cell lines.
2002 Nutrition and cancer

Dietary modulation of pregnancy estrogen levels and breast cancer risk among female rat offspring.
2002 Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association forcancer Research

Attenuation by Genistein of sodium-chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.
1999 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Comparison between daidzein and Genistein antioxidant activity in primary andcancer lymphocytes.
2005 Archives of biochemistry and biophysics

[The inhibiting effect of Genistein on the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro].
2002 Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica

[Effects of Genistein on colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and its mechanism of action].
2010 Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]

17beta-estradiol, genistein, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen induce the proliferation of thyroidcancer cells through the g protein-coupled receptor GPR30.
2006 Molecular pharmacology

Suppression of VEGF-mediated autocrine and paracrine interactions between prostatecancer cells and vascular endothelial cells by soy isoflavones.
2007 The Journal of nutritional biochemistry

Soy isoflavones enhance radiotherapy in a metastatic prostate cancer model.
2007 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Plasma isoflavone level and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Japanese women: a nested case-control study from the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study group.
2008 Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

Genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, enhanced radiosensitivity in human esophagealcancer cell lines in vitro: possible involvement of inhibition of survival signal transduction pathways.
2001 International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

Genistein attenuates peritoneal metastasis of azoxymethane-induced intestinal adenocarcinomas in Wistar rats.
2000 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

Cell signaling and regulators of cell cycle as molecular targets for prostate cancerprevention by dietary agents.
2000 Biochemical pharmacology

[Effect of soy isoflavones on cAMP/PKA pathway in breast cancer cells of the rat.].
2005 Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]

Prepubertal Genistein exposure affects erbB2/Akt signal and reduces rat mammary tumorigenesis.
2010 European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the Europeancancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)

Antiproliferation effect and mechanism of prostate cancer cell lines as affected by isoflavones from soybean cake.
2009 Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Protein tyrosine kinase and estrogen receptor-dependent pathways regulate the synthesis and distribution of glycosaminoglycans/proteoglycans produced by two human colon cancer cell lines.
2007 Anticancer research

Individual and combined soy isoflavones exert differential effects on metastaticcancer progression.
2010 Clinical & experimental metastasis

Modulation of estrogen receptor-beta isoforms by phytoestrogens in breast cancercells.
2006 International journal of oncology

Inhibition of human breast cancer growth by GCP (genistein combined polysaccharide) in xenogeneic athymic mice: involvement of Genisteinbiotransformation by beta-glucuronidase from tumor tissues.
2003 Mutation research

Lack of significant genotoxicity of purified soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) in 20 patients with prostate cancer.
2003 The American journal of clinical nutrition

Phytoestrogens/flavonoids reverse breast cancer resistance protein/ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance.
2004 Cancer research

Phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of unconjugated soy isoflavones administered to individuals with cancer.
2003 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

Phytoestrogen tissue levels in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and their association with prostatic diseases.
2004 Urology

Phytoestrogen tissue levels in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and their association with prostatic diseases.
2004 Urology

Plasma and prostate phytoestrogen concentrations in prostate cancer patients after oral phytoestogen supplementation.
2006 The Prostate

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation due to menadione-induced arylation mediates growth inhibition of pancreas cancer cells.
2008 Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology

Studies on Genistein and Chemopreventive

Studies on Genistein and Antiproliferative

Studies on Genistein and Anticarcinogenic

Studies on Genistein and AntiAngigenetic

Studies on Genistein and Apaptotic
2004 Molecular cancer therapeutics. Genistein potentiates inhibition of tumor growth by radiation in a prostate cancer orthotopic model. 2004 Molecular cancer…/1061287_Sensitization_of_the_apoptotic_effect_ of_gamma_irradiation_in_genistein.html
Radiotherapy is currently applied in the treatment of human cancers. We studied whetherGenistein would enhance the radiosensitivity and explored its precise…/710760_Daidzein_effect_on_hormone_ refractory_prostate_cancer_in_vitro_and.html
PURPOSE : Genistein, the major bioactive isoflavone of soybeans, acts as a Radiosensitizer for prostate cancer (PCa) both in vitro and in vivo. However, pure

Heart health

Many in-vitro tests have demonstrated that genistein inhibits cellular cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification. Genistein also reduces fatty acid oxidation and exerts lipid lowering effect. Only oxidized LDL cholesterol is absorbed by the arterial cells and prevention of this oxidation will reduce the risk for arteriosclerosis. Gensistein prevents the formation of hearth attacks and strokes by acting as anticlotting agent.

Facts about Genistein

The main source of genistein is the glucoside genistin. Before genistein can act it first needs to be released from genistin. This normally happens in the stomach (acid hydrolysis) and intestine (action of bacterial enzymes). Some genistein supplements contain genistein which has been hydrolysed in a chemical process.

  • Daidzein

7-hydroxy-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H -1-benzopyran-4-one, 4′, 7-dihydroxyisoflavone

Daidzein belongs to the group of isoflavones and has the typical C6-C3-C6 structure. Isoflavones are also called phytoestrogens because they have some estrogen activity. Daidzein is the aglycone (molecule without sugar) of glycoside daidzin. Other well known isoflavones are genistein and glycitein.

Soy beans, kudzu, red clover.Health Benefits of Daidzein

Daidzein has both weak estrogenic and weak anti-estrogenic effects. Daizein has also antioxidant activity. Foti P. et al of the Department of Food Science and Microbiology (University of Milan) compared the antioxidant activity daidzein and genistein. antioxidant activity in primary and cancer lymphocytes. Their results showed that daidzein is just as effective as genistein in protecting cells against oxidative damage of DNA. The antioxidant activity of daidzein was measured at concentration which could be obtained by consumption of soy products.

The anti-estrogenic effect of daidzein may explain its anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic and anti-osteoporotic activity. Epidemiological studies have long shown that people who consume a lot of soy have reduces incidences of prostate cancers. This benefit of soy could be explained by the anti-cancer and antioxidant activity of daidzein.

Constantinou AI et al (Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago) studied the effect of daidzein on the capacity of tomaxifen to prevent mammary tumours. They concluded that the combination of daidzein and tamoxifen produces increased protection against mammary carcinogenesis: tumour multiplicity was reduced by 76 percent and tumor incidence by 35 percent.

Studies on Daidzein and cancer

Daidzein seems to reduce the risk for osteoporosis. Studies have shown that daidzein stimulates the formation of osteoblasts, which are cells that produce bone mass.

There are also indications that daidzein may reduce the dependence on alcohol. Keung WM et al of the Center for Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, showed that an extract of Radix Puerariae suppressed the free-choice ethanol intake of ethanol-preferring hamsters. The herb Radix Puerariae contains daidzein and is used in China as a traditional Chinese medicine for alcohol addiction and intoxication.


Health Benefits of Daidzein


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