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PAGE 7 CONTENTS:
- Scientific studies on Anticarcinogenic natural substances
- Hundreds of studies about NATURAL substances with DEMONSTRATED chemopreventive effect:
- Hundreds of studies about NATURAL substances with DEMONSTRATED Chemotherapeutic effect:
- APOPTOSIS & hundreds of studies about NATURAL substances with DEMONSTRATED APOPTOTIC effect
- Hundreds of studies about NATURAL substances with DEMONSTRATED ANTIPROLIFERATIVE effect
- Scientific studies on Anti-Angiogenic
- Immune therapy & studies about NATURAL substances with DEMONSTRATED immune strengthening effect
Scientific studies on Anticarcinogenic natural substances
Anticarcinogenic- reduces the occurrence of cancers, reduces the severity of cancers that do occur, or acts against cancers that do occur
Hundreds of studies about NATURAL substances with DEMONSTRATED chemopreventive effect:
chemopreventive-prevent the development of cancer
Hundreds of studies about NATURAL substances with DEMONSTRATED Chemotherapeutic effect:
Chemotherapeutic-selectively destructive to malignant cells
Phyto medicines with a Bio-Chemo-Therapy action:
Plants which have a “suicide affect” on Cancer.
Fresh plants contain thousands of vitamins which are able to activate our immune system against germs, viruses or tumour cells, or even to induce apoptosis (cell suicide or programmed cell death –SEE note) in tumour cells.
As known to Ayurvedic Indian Medicine for thousands of years, patients affected by malignant tumours must never take plant SPROUTS, as they usually contain ALL 9 ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS, FOLIC ACID and Vitamin B12, a fact that WESTERN MEDICINE also discovered recently.
The plant with anti-cancer properties (apoptosis and/or immunostimulation) must not damage human organs or tissues and must therefore be eaten fresh, as a real PHYTOTHERAPIC PRODUCT.
In many cases, it can also be taken in the form of INFUSION (TEA or DECOCTION), with or without the addition of other substances, for example alcoholic ones, according to EXPERTS’ prescriptions.
It is generally advisable to eat raw fresh plants that kill cancer cells with the addition of honey(to make them 15-17 times more efficient), provided that they have no toxic side effects, as for example the Salvia species, which must be taken in the form of TEA in order to eliminate the very dangerous Thujone
ORGANIC RAW HONEY is also important because it protects the precious vitamins from air oxidation and gastric juices and allows them to be absorbed by patients’ intestinal walls. Furthermore, honey is a powerful antiseptic preventing germs from destroying vitamins. Several types of honey also have real healing properties as they are obtained from flowers of medicinal plants.
Amounts of vitamins needed to induce apoptosis in a certain number of tumour cells in the laboratory without damaging healthy human cells are really very small.
The following is a report of several scientific studies showing the actual ability of these vitamins to induce cell suicide in various tumours. Amounts needed are measurable in a few dozens of micromoles/litre, i.e. picomoles/microlitres.
For apoptosis-inducing vitamins – Tatman’s fundamental scientific study is higly recommended. His book lists about 180 different isoprenoids (Tatman H., Cancer Letters 175, 2002, pp. 129-139).
The following is a collection of significant scientific papers which can help doctors choose the most suitable plants for healing each malignant tumour http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/allpdf.php
The papers, almost all of them available in PDF format, can be found in the scientific literature and indicate the amounts of vitamins which are needed to induce APOPTOSIS in the cancerous cell line considered. The amounts are measurable in micromoles, i.e. micromoles/litre, i.e. nanomoles/millilitre, i.e picomoles/microlitre.The studies generally demonstrate that these plants almost never have side effects on healthy cells.
PLEASE NOTE: Reading the articles will make it clear that the amounts of vitamins needed to induce APOPTOSIS can change depending on tissular Ph, on oxygen quantity and above all on the time they remain in the tumour…
Aloe arborescens, maybe the most famous plant among those currently studied, contains Emodin, a fluorescent anthraquinone inducing a selective apoptosis only in tumour cells.
Please find three PDFs attached at the end of this work, including Palù G.: Aloe-Emodin is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors, Cancer Research, 60, pp. 2800-2804, 2000. [PDF http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/allpdf.php ]
By apoptosis we mean the activation of specific endonuclease which break up DNA, acting at the level of the nucleosomic sites which make up the primary structural unit of the nuclear chromatin of the cell. The induction molecules, in general deriving from plants (phyto-chemical), induce apoptosis in neoplastic cells, by activating proteolytic intracellular enzymes, which cause the deterioration by proteolysis of the vital sequence of the DNA, thus causing the death of the cell through apoptosis. In anti-neoplastic therapy these molecules have to reactivate the suicide command in the tumor cells, without causing damage to the healthy cells. Initial clinical experience has already found in Emodine, contained in Aloe, a good example of a particularly selective molecule for certain types of human tumor, like vitamins A, D and E.
The deliberate attempt on the part of companies producing GMO to deactivate (with Fortilin, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl) this precious natural mechanism contained in plants is very serious. This phenomenon of blocking apoptosis (anti-apoptosis action), already introduced experimentally into tobacco plants by means of a virus (748,751), is according to the author a deliberate act of damage inflicted on the ecosystem by GMO: a damage which, if it is propagated to plants commonly used in the food chain, could render the cure of tumors and other serious illnesses completely impossible using the method proposed in this study.
There are also vegetable substances (and perhaps even, by means of chemical synthesis, of pharmaceutical origin) which have the ability to be absorbed by membrane molecules exclusively present in certain human tumor cells, and therefore introduced to the inside of the diseased cell.
Since all cellular membranes have the same structure, these molecules also become absorbed at the level of the lysosomial membrane, damaging it. De Duve (84) had defined lysosomes as “suicide vesicles”, and, if their membrane is damaged by toxic agents, it becomes permeable to enzymes contained in it, which thus digest the cell itself. This phenomenon is partly reminiscent of apoptosis: in practice, a cellular suicide induced by enzymes present in the DNA itself of the cell, that is to say, the activation of specific endonucleases which break up the DNA, acting at the level of nucleosomic sites which make up the primary structural unit of the nuclear chromatin of the cell (SEE also:Emodine-Aloe). But, in this case, they are extraneous molecules which interfere with the integrity of the membrane of the lysosomes, and not with the DNA structure, as for example in the case of the berries of Pittosporum tobira and Chamerops excelsa (84).
Another form of apoptosis was discovered by a Japanese study in the case of neuroblastomas, which tend to regress when a certain amount of H-Ras protein has accumulated in cells (1042-43)
It probably occurs also in the case of glioblastomas (astrocytomas of III or IV degree of malignancy). It was observed that this kind of tumour regressed in human beings after administering plant extracts inducing the production of the same vitamin (H-Ras) in glioblastomas.(1173)
In the case of brain tumours, Morinda citrifolia extracts are particularly important (1043). which induced RAS expression and caspase-independent Neuroblastoma cell death.
Other plants such as Hypericum perforatum, Melissa officinalis, Momordica carantia, Betula alba,Yucca schidigera (1118) and Gardenia species are currently being studied (1061)
Alpha-Bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol in Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) essential oil, could be considered as a promising inducer of apoptosis in highly malignant glioma cells (1568)
A significant effect on the treatment of glioma was reported using Elemene which is found in small amounts in many essential oils: it prolonged quality survival time of 40 patients with glioma (1574)
(Tan P.: Clinical study on treatment of 40 cases of malignant brain tumor by Elemene emulsion injection, Chin. J.
Integ. Trad. Western Med, 20, pp.: 645-648, 2000) http://www.mednat.org/cancro/cancro_cervello.pdf
Note: Morinda citrifolia is inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disruption of newly established human vasculary vesels (1172).
The term Pseudo-Apoptosis, may better differentiate this mechanism from Apoptosis proper, as described above.
One particular aspect concerns medicines, phyto-medicines, vitamin substances or minerals, or of other types, which have a selective anti-tumoral action on cancer cells alone, by means of inducing apoptosis or pseudo-apoptosis like (from: http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/allpdf.php
The cruciferous vegetables (809)
Glucosinolates (1137) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/Glucosinolati.pdf
Volatile isoprenoid constituents of fruit, vegetables and herbs, for leukaemia and melanoma (1141)
Bioflavonoids for Leukaemia (1130) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/azione%20di%20antileucemia%20dei%20bioflavonoidi_2.pdf
Baicalin and Baicalein (718, 1563,1564).
Quercetin for Leukaemia (1146, 1561)
Quercetin for oral cancer (1370) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/quercetina.pdf
Quercetin for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (1560) and colonrectal cancer (1562)
Limonene induces the formation of apoptotic bodies on BCG-823 gastric cancer cells in a dose-and time –dependent manner (1565) and induced significant reductions of hepatocellular carcinomas (1566).
Limonene showed anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects on human gastric cancer implanted in nude mice, thus inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis (1577).
Essential oil of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) was found to be effective against a series of human cancer cell lines (1567).
Artemisia annua induced apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma (Li Y.: Induction of apoptosis of cultured hepatocarcinoma cell by essential oil of Artemisia annua (1569)
Eucalyptol (Eucalyptus globules, Elettaria cardamomum) on human leukaemia HL-60 cells showed induction of apoptosis (1570)
The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia and its major monoterpene alcohol (terpinen 4-ol) were able to induce caspase – dependent apoptosis in human melanoma cells (1571).
The essential oil of Tetraclinis articulate (conifer tree) showed the hallmarks of apoptosis when tested on a number of human cancer cell lines including melanoma, breast and ovarian cancer in addition to peripheral blood lymphocytes (1572)
Cudrania tricuspidata induces apoptosis in human leukaemia (1573)
Pomegranate seed oil (Punica granatum) contains a coniugated trienoic fatty acid as a principal ingredient, which can induce apoptosis in several cancer cell (1576)
Alisma plantago acquatica induces apoptosis in human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and human fibrosarcoma (1559-1600) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/ALISMA%20PLANTAGO-AQUATICA.pdf
Ellipticine of Ochrosia elliptica for breast cancer (1135)
Carnosic acid (712).
Diosmin (as Tribulus terrestris) induce apoptosis on osteosarcoma (1134)
Betulinic acid for melanoma, neuroblastoma, leukaemia, malignant brain-tumors (1036-1041,1127,1128,1166, 1603) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/betulla_1.pdf
The berries of Pittosporum tobira and Chamerops excelsa (84).
Vitamins A, D and E
Citrus limonum (693)
Allium sativum (694,696,1369) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/aglio_provoca_apoptosi_del_cancro_del_polmone.pdf
Rosmarinus officinalis (1062).
Sutherlandia frutescens (1147) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/sutherlandia%20frutescens.pdf
Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis (714, 1606) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/Uncaria_species.pdf
Two bioflavonoids (Apigenin and Quercetin) inhibit metastatic potential of melanoma (1609)
The metanolic extract of the flowers of Hypericum perforatum, Vaccinium vitis idaea, Bacopamonnieri (640),
Various flavenoids (Wagonin, Fisetin) for human hepatic-carcinoma (713).
Capsicum frutescens, fasciculatum or annuum on leukaemia and prostate cancer (1351,1598)
Curcumina induce apoptosis in lung cancer (1133)
It’s in Curcuma longa and Curcuma zedoaria , currently under experiment in vitro only on leukaemia , but already mentioned by Castore Durante even in 1617; inhibition of metastases (1161).
Many other plants, still being studied to verify their possible toxicity according to dosage, such as:
halictrum acutifolium for lung cancer (711).
Sophora flavescens for leukaemia (716)
Hibiscus sabdaiffa, experimented in vitro only on human leukaemia (692),
Altholactone induced apoptosis on leukaemia (1125 )
Elemene (Curcuma zedoaria and another plants), induced apoptosis in leukaemia (1409).
Organic Germanium on lung cancer (269)
Carotenoids induced apoptosis in prostate cancer (1366)
Cianidine 3–Glucoside and Peonidine 3-Glucoside induced apoptosis on cancer (1368)
Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids (1129) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/azione%20di%20antileucemia%20dei%20bioflavonoidi_1.pdf
Alkaloides of Gelsemium sempervirens induced apoptosis on liver cancer (699)
Essential oils of plants induced apoptosis on cancer and leukaemia ( 1371)
Manganese Superoxide Dismutasis induced apoptosis on mesotelioma (1365)
Curcumina and Quercitina induced apoptosis on adenoma (1410)
Curcumina and Isothiocyanates (PEITC) induced apoptosis on prostate cancer (1352)
Pereskia bleo for breast cancer (1144)
Panax ginseng (1170,1171)
Resveratrol (1162) in the Polygonum cuspidatum, Vitis vinifera and in Yucca schidigera (1118) whichis characterized by its apoptotic activity p53-dependent on Melanoma, by depolarizing
mitochondrial membranes (activating Caspase-9 ) in Acute Leukaemia (1121,1148,1605), in the Breast cancer (1608) and also its anti-angiogenese properties (695)
Gordonia axillaris, tested on human tumors (698) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/camellina%20B_(english).pdf
The rhizome of Atractylodes ovata tested on leukaemia (704).
Solanum lyratum for cancer of the liver (705)
Lepidozamia peroffskyana (1044).
Boswellia carterii tested on leukaemia (704).
Drinaria fortunei which has proven effective against human osteoclast (717), and according to the
author should be tried on osteolithic bone metastasis or Multiple Myeloma.
Phyllanthus urinaria against lung cancer (720)
Salvia miltiorrhiza is still being evaluated for its possible toxic effects (Tujone), but apoptosis on
epatocarcinoma (708,1115,1116) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/salvia%20%20induce%20apoptosi%20su%20tumori.pdf
and Leukaemia (1575)
Camellia sinensis (173,1123,1124, 1159, 1160,1164,1186) http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/the%20verde_2.pdf
Tartary buckwheat flavonoid activates caspase 3 and induces apoptosis in cancer (1064).
Zingiber officinale (6-paradol) activates caspase 3 (1143)
Sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide, the principal active component in medicinal plants (es.:
Tanacetum parthenium), induced apoptosis in toumors, depletion of Glutathione, generation of
reactive oxygen species, activation of Caspases 7,8,9, overexpression of GADD153, an anticanceragent inducibile gene, and subsequent apoptotic cell death. (701)
Goniothalamin of Goniothalamus species (1138,1139)
Boswellic acid induces apoptosis in metastatic melanoma and fibrosarcoma (1131)
Citrus species induced apoptosis in cancer, with beta Cryptoxanthin and Hesperidin (1063)
In Calabria (Italy) Citrus aurantium bergamia (Bergamot orange) is being cultivated.
In the following work, many food plants included in the diet of several people and having
advantageous medical properties are reported (1149-1153).
Spinaches also have effects on papillomas (1154)
Equally important is organic Selenium (1155)
Alpinia oxyphylla (Zingiberaceae) in human promielocytic leukaemia (1156)
Another process of apoptosis induced by woodfordin I in human leukaemia K562 cells (1157)
Chlorophyllin and chlorophyll are modulation of apoptosis (1158)
Pentacyclic triterpenes from Chrysobalanaceae species have cytotoxicity on leukaemia (1167).
Inhibition of human breast cancer growth by Genistein (1168)
Several major ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines are under study in human hepatoma (1169).
Even alcohol perillico induces apoptosis of tumors, cancers that both leukemias (1556-1559)
Even the root extract of Solanum dulcamara has been shown to cause apoptosis in prostate cancer and its metastases (1655)
Among the many Indoles, is to remember the glucobrassicin, contained in the Brassicaceae, which determines apoptosis in breast cancer. In particular, it is contained in Isatis dyeing (1656)
Many other plants exist, and have been collected in particular extracts for therapeutic use, not only as plants with potential apoptotic and pseudo apoptotic use but also as immune stimulating plants (chap.9) and/or with an anti-oxidative action
On the basis of recent discoveries about the apoptotic induction of the seeds of Momordica charantia (639), particular interest is currently being shown to the seeds of other plants such as Helianthus annuus (sunflower); Citrus paradisi (grapefruit); Cucumis melo (melon); Cucumis sativus (cucumber); Citrullus vulgaris (water melon, red melon); Solanum lycopersicum (tomato); Solanum melongena (aubergine/eggplant); Rubus idaeus (raspberry); Actinidia chinensis (kiwi);Citrus aurantium (orange) and Vitis vinifera.
A matter of grave concern is that large GMO seed firms are putting on the global agricultural market fruits with no seeds inside, in particular the following: Cucumis melo, Citrus limonum, Citrullus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum, Vitis vinifera.
Seeds are deemed significant anti-cancer agents essentially because they contain the well-known vitamin B17.
Another modifications are: GMO-Brassica rapa (turnip, 968), GMO-Brassica oleracea botrytis (cauliflower,968), Prunus domestica (1013), Citrus paradisi (1014),etc….
Pueraria species induced apoptosis on human toumors for the contents of Antocyanin (apoptosis on toumors) but the contents of Antocyanin of the Pueraria GMO were dramatically decreased by 40% (1119) http://www.mednat.org/alimentazione/PUERARIA.pdf
Other hundreds of studies about NATURAL substances with DEMONSTRATED APOPTOTIC effect:
Scientific studies on Antiproliferative
- stops or prevents proliferation of cancer
IRF9 is a key factor for eliciting the antiproliferative activity of IFN-alpha.
Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of antiproliferative 1,3-disubstituted urea derivatives.
European journal of medicinal chemistry
Antiproliferative Activity of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents and Effects of Pifithrin-Alpha on Their Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Hep G2 Cells.
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
Antifolate and antiproliferative activity of 6,8,10-triazaspiro[4.5]deca-6,8-dienes and 1,3,5-triazaspiro[5.5]undeca-1,3-dienes.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistryAntiproliferative effects of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng on SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.
Phytotherapy research : PTR
In vitro antiproliferative characteristics of flavonoids and diazepam on SNU-C4 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.
Journal of natural medicines
Phytochemicals of apple peels: isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Antiproliferative effects of conjugated linoleic acid on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2.
Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition
Volatile oil composition and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis, Origanum syriacum, Origanum vulgare, and Salvia triloba against human breast adenocarcinoma cells.
Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Crossostephium chinensis (L.) Makino.
The American journal of Chinese medicine
Antiproliferative and overadditive effects of rapamycin and FTY720 in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.
Antiproliferative effects of 2-methoxyestradiol alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents on human endometrial cancer cells.
European journal of gynaecological oncology
Antiproliferative effect of sulindac in colonic neoplasia prevention: role of COOH-terminal Src kinase.
Molecular cancer therapeutics
Antiproliferative activity and cytotoxicity of Solanum jamesii tuber extracts on human colon and prostate cancer cells in vitro.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Diospyros lotus L. extract and isolated compounds.
Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands)
Synthesis, evaluation and structural studies of antiproliferative tubulin-targeting azetidin-2-ones.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
Antiproliferative activity of brown Cuban propolis extract on human breast cancer cells.
Natural product communications
Type I gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mediates the antiproliferative effects of GnRH-II on prostate cancer cells.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Comparative studies of the antiproliferative effects of ginseng polysaccharides on HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
Antiproliferative effect of alcoholic extracts of some Gabonese medicinal plants on human colonic cancer cells.
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines
Normalization of Proliferation and Tight Junction Formation in Bladder Epithelial Cells from Patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome by D-Proline and D-Pipecolic Acid Derivatives of Antiproliferative Factor.
Chemical biology & drug design
Functionalized 3-benzylidene-indolin-2-ones: inducers of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) with antiproliferative activity.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
Comparative chemical composition and antiproliferative activity of aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia Benth. and Salvia acetabulosa L. essential oils against human tumor cell in vitro models.
Journal of medicinal food
Scientific studies on Anti-Angiogenic
Inhibit the growth of TUMOR blood vessels:
Novel anti-angiogenic therapies for malignant gliomas.
Induction of thrombospondin-1 partially mediates the anti-angiogenic activity of dexrazoxane.
British journal of cancer
In pursuit of new anti-angiogenic therapies for cancer treatment.
Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual libraryPotent anti-angiogenic motifs within the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide.Amyloid : the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation : the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
Role of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment in the resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies.
Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy
Phosphatase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic effect in vitro.
APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
Recurrence pattern in glioblastoma multiforme patients treated with anti-angiogenic chemotherapy.
Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
Anti-angiogenic therapies for children with cancer.
Current cancer drug targets
A novel imaging-based high-throughput screening approach to anti-angiogenic drug discovery.
Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Imbalance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in rheumatic and mixomatous mitral valves.
International journal of cardiology
Acoustic radiation force and optical spectroscopy for assessing tumor vessel normalization during anti-angiogenic therapy.
Conference proceedings : … Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
Ellagic Acid, the Active Compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, Exerts In Vivo Anti-angiogenic Effect and Inhibits MMP-2 Activity.
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
Anti-angiogenic activity of Gynura segetum leaf extracts and its fractions.
Journal of ethnopharmacology
Verteporfin photodynamic therapy and anti-angiogenic drugs: potential for combination therapy in exudative age-related macular degeneration.
Current medical research and opinion
Anti-angiogenic therapy against gastrointestinal tract cancers.
Japanese journal of clinical oncology
Functionalized nanospheres loaded with anti-angiogenic drugs: Cellular uptake and angiosuppressive efficacy.
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
Anti-angiogenic function of tocotrienol.
Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition
Anti-angiogenic therapy: adapting strategies to overcome resistant tumors.
Journal of cellular biochemistry
Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy changes the balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in maternal plasma.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
Combination of anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy: arming oncolytic viruses with anti-angiogenic genes.
Current opinion in molecular therapeutics
Metronomic Dosing Enhances The Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Epothilone B.
The Journal of surgical research
Anti-angiogenic strategies in medulloblastoma: reality or mystery?
Functionalized nanospheres loaded with anti-angiogenic drugs: cellular uptake and angiosuppressive efficacy.
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
Anti-angiogenic activity of carebastine: a plausible mechanism affecting airway remodelling.
The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Inhibition of transglutaminase 2 enzymatic activity ameliorates the anti-angiogenic effects of coeliac disease autoantibodies.
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the anti-angiogenic actions of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol.
British journal of pharmacology
Unexplained fetal death is associated with increased concentrations of anti-angiogenic factors in amniotic fluid.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
Immunomodulatory effects of anti-angiogenic drugs.
Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Design and development of polymer conjugates as anti-angiogenic agents.
Advanced drug delivery reviews
Immune therapy is the immune response against tumors, carried out by means of gamma delta T
Lymphocytes, cytotoxic T Lymphocytes, killer lymphocytes and Natural Killers, real guide systems of a complete immune response of the patient against the tumor itself (start of the Immune Cascade).
There are different scientific studies on this subject:
JAMA, 278: 1972-1981, 1997; Crit. Rev. Oncol.-Hematol, 22, pp.: 213-228, 1996;
Semin. immunol., 8, pp. 295-302, 1996; Sem. Oncol., 23, pp.: 101-107, 1996;
Springer Semin. Immunopath. 18, pp.: 185-198, 1996; Cancer Met Rev., 15, pp:329-349, 1996;
Ann. Rev. Immunol., 12, pp.: 337-365, 1994; Adv Immunol. 35, pp.: 89-122, 1984.
Brain cancer : J. Neurosurgery 77, pp 757-762, 1992;
Cellular Immunology, 178, pp: 101-107, 1997; J. Neuro- Oncology, 32, pp.: 29-38, 1997.
Breast cancer : Cancer Gene Therapy, 4, pp.: 157-166, 1997; Surgery, 122, pp.: 228-234, 1997.
Per tumori del Colon: Blood 89, pp: 2529-2536, 1997;
Leukaemia: Progress Cancer Research and Therapeutics, 22, pp: 127-133, 1982;
Liver cancer: J. Immunology, 161, pp.: 5133-5137, 1998;
Lung cancer: Blood 89, pp.: 2529-2536, 1997; J. Immunology 147, pp: 729-737, 1991; J. Immunology 143, pp.:740-748, 1989.
Melanoma: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, 42, pp.: 237-245, 1996; J. Immunotherapy, 13, pp.: 153-165, 1993.
The Immune Cascade, induced to fight the tumor, is carried out by means of the use of phytotherapy (plant therapy), because it is considered safer compared to the complex methodology of extracting Lymphocytes from the tumor, cultivating them in a sterile environment, and then reinjecting them, intravenously, into the patient, as Rosemburg and other authors [see: Pizza
Giancarlo: Immunotherapy of metastatic kidney cancer, Int. J. Cancer, 94, pp.109-120, 2001]).
There have been many studies carried out on the search for natural substances which have an antineoplastic immune-modulating action (9, 11, 32, 44, 50, 53, 61, 67, 82, 105, 126, 132, 144, 145, 146, 180, 196, 198, 225, 236, 278, 279, 306, 310, 319, 331, 346, 351, 359, 368, 372-381, 387, 388, 394, 395, 406, 412, 418, 419, 430, 444, 456, 462, 472, 474, 500, 516, 517, 520, 577). (see last page of darabase for regerences)
The majority of tumoral antigen markers, which were well thought of during the 1980s as specific tumoral antigens, are in fact differentiating antigens, that is, antigens which appear along the maturing lines of the cell as embryonal antigens.
Not all tumoral cells express the same antigens at the same time and irrespective of the cellular cycle, it is thought that these antigens can cause a weak cytotoxic reaction mediated by the lymphocytes, perhaps because of carbohydrate structures screening the protein structures, which are the real determining antigens;(507).
The activation of the T lymphocyte suppressors is caused by the weak immune response to the
tumor: in the case, that is, of a spontaneously arising tumor, the presence at the beginning of a low number of cells favors rather than inhibits its growth by means of a mechanism mediated by the T suppressors.
It is still much debated whether the regional lymph nodes form an immune or even only a mechanic barrier to the spread of the metastasis.
The lymph nodes next to the tumor often do not contain tumoral cells but they show a hyper-plastic reaction which suggests the existence of a reaction of the host against the tumor or its derivatives.
The theory has also been proposed that the lymph nodes have a limited capacity to eliminate neoplastic cells.
It is thought that the limit of this action is exactly connected to the number of malignant cells which reach the lymph node, a value which has to be less than 500-1.000 cells to avoid the onset of a metastasis.
The destruction of metastasizing cells is started, above all, by the histiocyte macrophages of the breasts with a hyper-plastic reaction of these, which is then followed by an active infiltration of the tumoral micro-metastasis caused by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and Natural-Killers (NK) (507).
These are thought to have a spontaneous reactivity against both primary and metastasis cancerous cells, without any manifestation of histocompatability or of specific types for the function of the interaction of the cells.
Rats with a low level of NK, if treated with Beta-estradiol increase their NK quite significantly,with significant reductions in the number of metastases(507).
Even the neutrophils of peripheral human blood have been shown, in vitro, capable of inhibiting the growth of cancerous cells of either human or murine origin, with a strength ratio of 40 to1 between effector cells and neo-plastic cells; and always if the latter are covered by antibodies (507).
Macrophage-Monocytes show cytotoxity of a phagocytic type on neo-plastic cells even in the absence of precise stimulation; their cytotoxity is thought to occur by means of a bond, favored by the receptor for the FC portion of the antibody and of the complement, to the antigen target covered by antibodies with a strength ratio of 1 to 1, after which the cells may be destroyed (507).
Recently, there has also been notable interest regarding T Lymphocytes, which might be activated by particular substances, such as lecithin, which is contained in Aloe for example (499).
The following plants might also be useful, because they are forerunners of Prostaglandin and therefore they assist in the Immune Cascade: oil of Borrago officinalis (Borragine [note; eliminate the fine down which covers it]); oil of Oenothera biensis (Enotera); the leaves of Nelumbium speciosum (Kamala), which contain two essential unsaturated fatty acids (vitamin F): gammalinolenic acid and linolenic acid: the two acids cis-linolenic and gamma linolenic introduce a number of essential fatty acids into the human biochemical complex; then, the delta 6 desaturated block is overcome through gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) encouraging the production of Protaglandin and so setting off the first phase of the Immune Cascade.
The immune response to the tumor is fully demonstrated by the use of other phytotherapeutic
substances(621,773,793,794) such as extract of Viscum album (Mistletoe) and above all by a variety of
combinations of European, Asian, American, Australian and African herbs, or by using them
individually: Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea,
Morinda citrifolia, Campanula latifolia, Tribulus terrestris, Uncaria tomentosa, Sida cordifolia,
Arctium lappa, Rumex acetosa, Rumex crispus, Bacopa monnieri, Rheum palmatum or officinale,
Trifolium pratensae, Calendula officinalis, Achillea filipendulina, Urtica dioica, Acalypha indica, Taraxacum officinale, Malva silvestris or vulgaris, Epilobium angustifolium or parviflorum, Artemisia abrotanum or dracunculus, Salvia officinalis or lavandulifolia, Equisetum arvense Crocus sativus, Polygala senega, Thymus vulgaris, Citrullus colocynthis, Primula veris or officinalis, Ailanthus glandulosa, Thymus serpillum, Sysymbrium officinale, Aquilaria agallocha, Eclipta alba, Larrea mexicana, Viola tricolor, Drosera rotundifolia or anglica, or intermedia, Argemone mexicana, Sambucus nigra, Smilax sarsaparilla or utilitis, Myrica cerifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Adiantum capillus veneris, Luffa operculata, Tephorosia purpurea, Nepeta cataria, Momordica charantia, Trigonella foenum graecum, Verbascum thapsus or densiflorum, Serenoa repens, Sempervivum montanum, Ajuga reptans or piramidalis, Gnafalium supinum, Citrus aurantium bergamia, Draba aizoides, Hieracium pilosella, Cicerbita alpina, Hypericum richeri, Angelica archangelica, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Primula hirsuta, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Cerastium alpinum, Cirsium spinosissimum, Pedicularis rostrato-capitata, Potentilla grandiflora, Annona squamosa, Gentiana germanica, Saxifraga aizoides, Antennaria dioica, Argyreia speciosa (o Lettsomia nervosa), Moringa pterygosperma, Antyllis alpestris, Hypoxishemerocallidea, Eupatorium perfoliatum or purpureum, Euspongia officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Lycopodium clavatum, Galphimia glauca, Albizzia lebbek, Sticta pulmonaria or Lobaria pulmonaria, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Sutherlandia frutescens, Chimaphila umbellata, Myristica fragrans or sebifera, Grindelia camporum or squarrosa, Althaea officinalis, Guajacum officinalis,Boswellia serrata, Myroxylon balsamum, Erithrea antaurium, Pulmonaria officinalis or angustifolia, Peucedanum ostruthium, Bambusa arundinacea, Ocimum basilicum, sanctum or tenuiflorum, Ceanothus americanus, Cassia angustifolia, Centaurea erythreum, Rhamnus sagrada or purshiana, Aralia racemosa, Rhamnus frangula (or Frangula alnus), Curcuma longa, Terminalia chebula, Lepidium meyenii, Mahonia aquifolium, Stachys arvensis, Abuta grandifolia, Polygonum
aviculare, Ailantus glandulosa, Geranium robertianum, Marasdenia cundurango, Melissa monarda or officinalis, Alchimilla alpina or vulgaris, Asparagus racemosus, Apium graveolens, Lamium album, Pimpinella major, Lysimachia nummularia, Marrubium vulgare, Acorus calamus, Galium aparine, Lapsana communis, Glechoma hederaceum, Myrtus communis, Cinchona calisaya or succirubra, Meum mutellina, Picramnia antidesma, Azadirachta indica, Achyrocline satureoides, Polypodium lepidopteris, Anacardium occidentale, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Carapa guianensis, Scutellaria baicalensis o latiflora, Nelumbo nucifera, Boerhaavia diffusa, Calendula silvestris, Cassia occidentalis, Houttuynia cordata, Cayaponia tayuya, Cissampelos pareira, Asparagus cochinensis, Copaifera officinalis, Cynara scolymus, Erythrina mulungu, Erythroxylum catuaba, Ilex paraguariensis, Inesinae calea, Lepidium meyenii, Maytenus krukovit, Maytenus illicifolia, Myroxylon balsamum or pereirae, Pfaffia paniculata, Phyllantus niruri, Physalis angulata or Muehenbeckia volcanica, Psidium guajava, Schinus molle, Solanum paniculatum, and many other (see below)
Other plants with an immune stimulating activity
There are about sixty other immune modulating plants from North America and Europe, with an
action which is partially similar to Aloe Arborescens(see below), seven of which can be included in the composition termed Essiac ( the formula of Renè Caisse see below) which is particularly effective (517, 520,1047- 1060, 1438-1496).
There are also some interesting combinations of about 200 Indian plants and herbs of ancient Vedic,
Chinese tradition (608-609), of Africa and of Sud-America, used today in modern western plant
therapy which has revalued their importance (621,773,793,794).
Abuta grandifolia Acalypha indica Achyrocline satureoides Adiantum capillus veneris Ailanthus glandulosa Althaea officinalis Albizzia lebbek Anacardium occidentale Angelica archangelica Annona squamosa or muricata Apium graveolens Aralia racemosa Argemone mexicana Argyreia speciosa
Asparagus cochinensis Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia dracunculus Astragalus membranaceus Aquilaria agallocha Bambusa arundinacea Bidens pilosa Bixa orellana Boerhaavia diffusa Boswellia serrata Calendula silvestis Calendula officinalis Campanula latifolia Carapa guianensis Cassia occidentalis Cassia angustifolia. Cayaponia tayuya Ceanothus americanus. Chimaphila umbellata Cinnamomum zeylanicum Cissampelos pareira Citrus aurantium bergamia Citrullus colocynthis Copaifera officinalis Cynara scolymus Cucurma longa Drosera rotundifolia, or anglica, or intermedia Echinacea purpurea, angustifolia, pallida Eclipta alba Equisetum arvense Epilobium angustifolium Erithrea antaurium Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Euspongia officinalis Erythrina mulungu Erythroxylum catuaba Frangula alnus Grindelia camporum or squarrosa Glycyrrhiza glabra Holarrhena antidysenteric Hypoxis hemerocallidea Houttuynia cordata Ilex paraguariensis Inesinae calea Larrea mexicana Lepidium meyenii Lettsomia nervosa Lobaria pulmonaria fraxineuem Lycopodium clavatum Luffa operculata Maytenus krukovit Maytenus illicifolia Myroxylon balsamum aut pereirae Momordica charantia Moringa pterygosperma Morinda citrifolia Myrica cerifera Myristica fragrans or sebifera Nelumbo nucifera Nepeta cataria Ocimum sanctum or enuiflorum Ocimum basilicum Picramnia antidesma Pfaffia paniculata Phyllantus niruri Physalis angulata aut Muehenbeckia volcanica Psidium guajava Plantago major Polygala senega Primula veris or officinalis Rhamnus sagrada or purshiana Rhamnus frangula Rhodiola rosea Rosmarinus officinalis Rumex crispus Scutellaria baicalensis o latiflora a Sambucus nigra
Salvia officinalis Schinus molle Serenoa repens Smilax aspera, sarsaparilla or utilitis Solanum paniculatum Sticta pulmonaria Sysymbrium officinale Taraxacum officinalis Terminalia chebula Tephorosia purpurea Thymus vulgaris Thymus serpillumTribulus terrestris Ulmus rubra or fulva Uncaria tomentosa. Urtica dioica Verbascum densiflorum or thapsus Viola tricolor Xanthoxilum and others in random order: Acorus calamus Ajuga reptans or piramidalis Alchimilla alpina or vulgaris Azadirachta indica Antennaria dioica Antyllis alpestris Bacopa monnieri Capsella bursa pastoris Cerastium alpinum Centaurea erythreum Cetraria islandica Cicerbita alpina monogyna Cinchona calisaya or succirubra Crataegus oxyacantha or Draba aizoides Galphimia glauca Galium aparine Gentiana germanica Glechoma hederaceum Gnafalium supinum Hypericum richeri Hieracium pilosella Lamium album Lepidium meyenii Leucanthemopsis alpina graecum Larrea Lapsana communis Lichen islandicus divaricata Lysimachia nummularia Marasdenia Marrubium vulgare balsamum Mahonia aquifolium Melissa monarda or officinalis Melaleuca alternifoglia or Meum mutellina cundurango Myrtus communis Myroxylon Peucedanum ostruthium Pedicularis rostrato-capitata Pimpinella major Polygonum aviculare Potentilla grandiflora Primula hirsuta Pulmonaria officinalis Pulmonaria angustifolia Stachys arvensis Sutherlandia frutescens Tabebuia impetiginosa Trigonella foenum Sempervivum montanum Saxifraga oppositifolia Saxifraga aizoides
For studies referred above see last page for the bibliography with over 1600 scientific papers quoted in the book studies.