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SELENIUM

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One of the most effective naturally occurring weapons against cancer is, like most healthy things, something many of us are not getting enough of.

The mineral selenium has been shown in multiple studies to be an effective tool in warding off various types of cancer, including breast, esophageal, stomach, prostate, liver and bladder cancers.

Not many people get the recommended dose of 200 micrograms a day. Most people only get between 60 and 100 micrograms of selenium daily from dietary sources, according to the Life Extension Foundation’s Disease Prevention and Treatment. That means daily supplements might be worth considering.

Selenium was first used in conventional medicine as a treatment for dandruff, but our understanding of the mineral has come a long way since then.
Today, research shows selenium, especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene, works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer).
Selenium also helps stop damaged DNA molecules from reproducing. In other words, selenium acts to prevent tumors from developing.
„It contributes towards the death of cancerous and pre-cancer cells. Their death appears to occur before they replicate, thus helping stop cancer before it gets started,” says Dr. James Howenstine in A Physician’s Guide to Natural Health Products That Work.

Selenium & Chemotherapy

In addition to preventing the onset of the disease, selenium has also been shown to aid in slowing cancer’s progression in patients that already have it.

According to the Life Extension Foundation, „the use of selenium during chemotherapy in combination with vitamin A and vitamin E can reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs. The mineral also helps „enhance the effectiveness of chemo, radiation, and hyperthermia while minimizing damage to the patient’s normal cells; thus making therapy more of a ‘selective toxin'”, says Patrick Quillin in Beating Cancer with Nutrition.

A 1996 study by Dr. Larry Clark of the University of Arizona showed just how effective selenium can be in protecting against cancer. In the study of 1,300 older people, the occurrence of cancer among those who took 200 micrograms of selenium daily for about seven years was reduced by 42 percent compared to those given a placebo. Cancer deaths for those taking the selenium were cut almost in half, according to the study that was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.While the study concluded the mineral helped protect against all types of cancer, it had particularly powerful impacts on prostate, colorectal and lung cancers. Jean Carper, in Miracle Cures, called Dr. Clark’s findings an „unprecedented cancer intervention study” that „bumped up the respectability of using supplements against cancer several notches.”

Selenium Mechanisms

There are several possible mechanisms for the protective effect of selenium.
Selenium activates an enzyme in the body called gluthathione peroxidase(the storngest internal antioxidant – produced by our bodies)  that protects against the formation of free radicals—those loose molecular cannons that can damage DNA. In this situation, selenium may work interchangeably (and in synergy) with vitamin E.
In test tube studies, selenium inhibited tumor growth and regulated the natural life span of cells, ensuring that they died when they were supposed to instead of turning „immortal” and hence malignant. Because of this particular action, the University of Arizona researchers say that selenium could be effective within a fairly short time frame.
Ask Dr Weil by Andrew Weil MD, page 207
Numerous studies suggest that an inverse association exists between selenium levels and cancer incidence (Hocman, 1988; Willett and Stampfer, 1986; Milner, 1985). Associations appear to be particularly strong with cancers that are also associated with high-fat, low-fiber diets (i.e., breast, colon, prostrate, etc.).
The mechanism for selenium’s reported protective effects is likely due to its function in antioxidant synthesis.
Glutathione peroxidase, the primary enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide to water (and thus prevents lipid peroxidation) is selenium-dependent. Inhibition of lipid or bile acid oxidation may account for its protective role (reviewed by Linder 1991:496-7).
Selenium may also act as an immune stimulant.
Selenium deficiency inhibits macrophage-mediated tumor destruction, and inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in animals (Kiremidjian-Schumacher et al., 1992). Dietary supplementation with selenium produced the opposite effects.
Cancer And Natural Medicine by John Boik, page 146
The safest antioxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and beta-carotene. Together, they block the chemical reactions that create free radicals, which can damage DNA and promote a variety of degenerative changes in cells. Chemotherapy and radiation generate free radicals; that is how they kill dividing cells.
Ask Dr Weil by Andrew Weil MD, page 47
At the Yunnan Tin Corporation in China there is a very high rate of lung cancer among the miners. Forty healthy miners were given selenium supplements for a year. The selenium, which increased in their blood, boosted a key detoxifying enzyme system while simultaneously decreasing dangerous lipid peroxide levels by nearly 75 percent. It also protected against cancer-causing substances and ultraviolet radiation. Doctors at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences concluded that selenium supplements were a safe and effective food supplement for people.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 112
Numerous mechanisms have been explored to explain the modulation of carcinogenesis by selenium (Medina 1986, El-Bayoumy 1991). The best characterized function of selenium in mammalian cells is as a component of the seleno- enzyme, glutathione peroxi-dase. This enzyme is localized in the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix, and it eliminates organic peroxides from the cell (Medina 1986).
However, available evidence suggests that the prevention of carcinogenesis by selenium is not related to its function in glutathione peroxidase (Medina 1986). Other seleno- proteins have been identified, but their impact on carcinogenesis is not defined (Medina 1986).
There is some evidence that selenium may alter the metabolism of carcinogens or the interaction of chemical carcinogens with DNA, but there is considerable controversy in the literature (Medina 1986). Additional mechanistic studies suggest that selenium may alter cell proliferation and/or immunologic responses (Medina 1986,El-Bayoumy 1991).
Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms whereby selenium prevents cancer.
Carcinogens Human Diet by National Research Council, page 100
Selenium is needed to produce glutathione peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme that protects the body from free radical damage. It is also important in preventing cancer and cardiomegaly an enlargement of the heart that causes premature aging and early death.
Complete Encyclopedia Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 11
The best known functions of selenium at nutritionally adequate, but not at excessive, levels are its role as a part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase and its interaction with heavy metals. Glutathione peroxidase destroys hydroperoxides and lipoperoxides, thereby protecting the constituents of the cells against free radical damage. Ip and Sinha (1981) have shown that selenium, through its function in glutathione peroxidase, could well be involved in protecting against cancer induced by high intakes of fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids. Glutathione peroxidase activity in human blood increases with increasing selenium intakes, but reaches a plateau at intakes well below those customary in the United States (Thomson and Robinson, 1980). Thus, if the antitumorigenic effect of selenium is mediated through its function in glutathione peroxidase, attempts to increase the enzyme activity by selenium supplementation, superimposed on an adequate diet in the United States, would not be successful. The second function of selenium is to protect against acute and chronic toxicity of certain heavy metals. Although selenium is known to interact with cadmium and mercury, the mechanism of action is not known. Selenium does not cause an increased elimination of the toxic elements, but, rather, an increased accumulation in some nontoxic form (National Academy of Sciences, 1971). It is conceivable that carcinogenic effects of these, and perhaps other heavy metals, could be counteracted by selenium, in a manner similar to its protection against their general toxicity.
Diet Nutrition Cancer by National Research Council, page 168
Selenium’s main function in the body is to convert hydrogen peroxide to water, which is important for cellular health. Herbal Medicine Healing Cancer by Donald R Yance Jr, page 193 All of the body’s tissues contain selenium, but it is most plentiful in the liver, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, and testes. Selenium works synergistically with vitamin E to protect tissues and cell membranes, aid in the production of antibodies, and help maintain a healthy heart and liver
Prescription For Dietary Wellness by Phyllis A Balch, page 44

Selenium Anti-Cancer Effects

Some forms of cancer are the result of free radical oxidation that destroys or damages the part of the DNA that regulates cell multiplication. When that happens, the cells can begin to multiply abnormally, damaging the healthy tissue until your whole body is invaded by these wildly proliferating cells. Since selenium can protect you from free radical oxidation, one way to minimize your risk of developing this type of cancer is to eat selenium-rich foods like whole grains or their products with each meal. If you already have cancer, selenium may be useful in slowing its progression. A way to get it in even more concentrated doses than in foods is to take brewer’s yeast or supplements.
Complete Guide Health Nutrition by Gary Null, page 483

Laboratory studies have shown that selenium can inhibit the growth of breast, cervical, colon, and skin cancer.
Antioxidants Against Cancer by Ralph Moss PhD, page 79

Regular intake of yellow and green vegetables, as well as foods containing calcium, selenium and other micro-nutrients, lowers the risk of colon cancer.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 197

Selenium is protective against many types of cancers, promotes apoptosis, is a powerful antioxidant, and improves quality of life during aggressive cancer therapies According to P.D. Whanger (professor of agricultural chemistry), nearly 200 animal studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of supernutritional levels of selenium on experimental carcinogenesis using chemical, viral, and transplantable tumor models. Two thirds of the studies found that high levels of selenium reduced the development of tumors at least moderately (14-35% compared to controls) and, in most cases, significantly (by more than 35%) (Whanger 1998).
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 242

Selenium has been used in combination with vitamin A and vitamin E to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs, particularly Adriamycin (Faure et al. 1996; Vanella et al. 1997). The synergistic effect of vitamin E and selenium together to enhance the immune system is greater than either alone. A new form of selenium is Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMC), a naturally occurring selenium compound found to be an effective chemopreventive agent. SeMC is a selenoamino acid that is synthesized by plants such as garlic and broccoli. SeMC has been shown to induce apoptosis in certain ovarian cancer cells (Yeo et al. 2002) and to be effective against breast cancer cell growth both in vivo and in vitro (Sinha et al. 1999). SeMC has also demonstrated significant anticarcinogenic activity against mammary tumorigenesis (Sinha et al. 1997). Moreover, a study has demonstrated that SeMC is one of the most effective selenium chemopreventive compounds, inducing apoptosis in leukemia HL-60 cell lines (Jung et al. 2001a). Some of the most impressive data suggest that exposure to SeMC blocks clonal expansion of premalignant lesions at an early stage. This is achieved by simultaneously modulating certain molecular pathways that are responsible for inhibiting cell proliferation and enhancing apoptosis (Ip et al. 2001). Unlike selenomethionine, which is incorporated into protein in place of methionine, SeMC is not incorporated into any protein, thereby offering a completely bioavailable compound for preventing cancer. Therefore, 200—400 mcg of SeMC a day is suggested for cancer patients. Please note that selenium also possesses antioxidant properties, so its use before, during, or immediately after chemotherapy could theoretically inhibit the actions of certain chemotherapy drugs.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 277

Scientists have confirmed that vitamins C and E along with the mineral selenium afford some prostate cancer prevention. This is not surprising to anyone who understands diet, biochemistry, and how antioxidants work. Glutathione peroxidase destroys free radicals and superoxides. Its name means that it destroys peroxides (the potent oxidants that form in tissues) and uses glutathione as a helper. Glutathione requires selenium to function; and wherever selenium is at work, vitamin E can’t be far away because they function together.
20 Natural Ways To Reduce The Risk Of Prostate Cancer By James Scala PHD, page 54

For prostate cancer management, stay on a low fat diet, eat tomato products often, take a multivitamin, vitamins C, E and selenium.
A Physicians Guide To Natural Health Products That Work By James Howenstine MD, page 151

Men with higher intakes of antioxi-dants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and the trace mineral selenium have lower levels of prostate cancer.
Alternative Cures by Bill Gottlieb, page 519

General / History of Selenium & cancer

Selenium (Se) is a metal that is chemically similar to sulfur. It was first discovered in 1817 and because of its silvery color was named for Selene, the ancient goddess of the moon. Selenium is an essential component of two important antioxidant enzymes and is also the helpmate of vitamin E.
Antioxidants Against Cancer by Ralph Moss PhD, page 76

Initially, selenium’s importance in human health was underrated. In fact, its main use in conventional medicine was as a treatment for dandruff!
Antioxidants Against Cancer by Ralph Moss PhD, page 76

Strange as it may seem, toenail levels of selenium are considered a good indicator of long-term selenium intake. They found that the people whose toenails had the highest levels of selenium had half of the rate of lung cancer compared with those whose toe-nails were low in selenium.
Healing With Vitamins by Alice Feinstein, page 143

Emmanuel Revici, MD based his treatment on correcting an imbalance between fatty acids and sterols in the cancer patient; called „biological dualism”. Revici was considered a very dedicated physician and developer of selenium as an anti-cancer agent. -Ewan Cameron, MD, a Scottish surgeon first popularized the use of high dose vitamin C in terminal cancer patients.
Beating Cancer With Nutrition by Patrick Quillin, page 45

Some scientists still do not accept the need for selenium supplements and argue against its protective effect against cancer and other diseases. Others endorse the value of moderate amounts of selenium added to the diet. In the laboratory, selenium has shown a wide range of anticancer effects.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 109

Aside from Revici’s work, little has been done to investigate the use of this mineral as a cancer treatment. In 1911, Prof. August von Wasserrman achieved growth inhibition, shrinkage and eventually the disappearance of tumors by injecting selenium directly into mouse tumors. Four years later, two doctors caused the shrinkage and the eventual disappearance of small tumors in cancer patients, although larger tumors failed to respond.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 112

After critically examining this book, I came to the conclusion that Dr. Revici is an innovative medical genius, outstanding chemist and a highly creative thinker [emphasis added]. I also realized that few of his medical colleagues would be able to follow his train of thought and thus would be all too willing to dismiss his work. Because of my own professional interest in selenium, let me merely focus on this aspect of his work. Selenium containing medications were introduced into cancer therapy as early as 1911 by none less than the great physician August von Wasserman. Working with experimental animals, von Wasserman was able to show his selenium compounds produced liquefactive necrosis of solid tumors, an unheard of event at the time, hailed as a major success. However, von Wasserman’s compounds were too toxic and thus could not be employed in the treatment of human cancer. Dr. Revici deserves credit for having discovered pharmacologically active selenium compounds of very low toxicity. The same was achieved years later by one other great physician, Dr. Klaus Schwarz, in collaboration with a leading organic chemist, Dr. Arne Fredga, of Uppsala University. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the importance of selenium only within the past few years. Would one thus not have to conclude that Dr. Revici, in this one instance, was 40 years ahead of his time? The same could be said for many of his other researches which form the basis of his therapy.
Choices In Healing by Michael Lerner, page 614

Dr. Gerbhard Schauzer, a biochemist at the University of California in San Diego, … believes that if every woman in America began taking selenium supplements today or followed a diet high in selenium, the breast cancer rate in this country would decline drastically in a few years.
Miracle Medicine Herbs by Richard M Lucas, page 16

Asia has considerable quantities of selenium in its soil, making the Asian diet rich in the mineral; not surprisingly, cancer and heart disease occur considerably less often in Asian cultures than in the West.
Optimum Health by Stephen T Sinatra MD, page 123

Additional Benefits of Selenium & cancer

Antioxidants, like beta carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium appear to enhance the effectiveness of chemo, radiation, and hyperthermia while minimizing damage to the patient’s normal cells; thus making therapy more of a „selective toxin.” An optimally nourished cancer patient can better tolerate the rigors of cytotoxic therapy.
Beating Cancer With Nutrition by Patrick Quillin, page 18

Patients with advanced rectal cancer were treated with a combination of selenium, the drug 5-FU, and radiation. Scientists reported a protective effect of selenium on quality of life.
Antioxidants Against Cancer by Ralph Moss PhD, page 80

Selenium-deficient animals have more heart damage from the chemo drug, adriamycin.43 Supplements of selenium and vitamin E in humans did not reduce the efficacy of the chemo drugs against ovarian and cervical cancer. Animals with implanted tumors who were then treated with selenium and cisplatin (chemo drug) had reduced toxicity to the drug with no change in anti-cancer activity. Selenium supplements helped repair DNA damage from a carcinogen in animals. Selenium was selectively toxic to human leukemia cells in culture.
Beating Cancer With Nutrition by Patrick Quillin, page 56

While most nutritionists agree on the importance of growth (proliferative) nutrients, few nutritionists respect the importance for anti-proliferative nutrients. For every force in the body, there must be an opposing force to regulate that mechanism. There are agents that cause fluid loss from the kidneys (diuresis) and other agents that stem this fluid loss when it is excessive (anti-diuretic hormone). Just as there is a need for nutrients to augment growth, there is a need for nutrients to control excessive growth and shut down the process. Selenium, fish oil, garlic, Cat’s claw, Maitake D-fraction, vitamin E succinate, vitamin K, quercetin, genistein, and bovine cartilage all may assist the cancer patient in this manner.
Beating Cancer With Nutrition by Patrick Quillin, page 80

Vitamin E and selenium supplements in animals helped to reduce the heart toxicity from adriamycin. Selenium and vitamin E supplements were given to 41 women undergoing cytotoxic therapy for ovarian and cervical cancers, with a resulting drop in the toxicity-related rise in creatine kinase.
Beating Cancer With Nutrition by Patrick Quillin, page 107

One of the foremost selenium investigators, Gerhard Schrauzer of the University of California at San Diego, says: Apart from its functions as an essential micronutrient, selenium also appears to have other physiological functions in which it acts as a physiological resistance factor [emphasis added]. Its cancer protecting effects fall into this category. In addition, selenium protects against free radicals, mutagens, toxic heavy metals and certain bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. The selenium requirement increases under stress, just as the requirement for certain vitamins increases during infections. Selenium, according to Schrauzer, is most effective as a form of nutritional cancer prophylaxis. In animal research, its protective effect is greater the earlier in life it is given, and its shielding effect against virally induced cancer disappears if the nutrient is no longer fed to the animal. Nevertheless, selenium does have an effect on slowing the rate of growth of established spontaneous or transplanted breast tumors in animals, and in reversing the development of some malignant cell lines when used at pharmacological levels. Further, selenium has shown a general capacity to stimulate the immune system in several animal models, which may add to its anticancer effects. It is of special relevance to cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy that selenium „has by now been shown to prevent or retard tumorigenesis induced by virtually all the major known carcinogens,” probably, Schrauzer believes, „by modulating the rate of cell division.”
Choices In Healing by Michael Lerner, page 612

Just as selenium protects you against toxic metal poisoning, it can also protect you against radiation, whether you are exposed to it through the environment or more directly through medical treatments. A particularly effective form of selenium for this purpose is selenoaminoacid compounds (selenium plus amino acids). Selenium also protects you against compounds called epoxides, as it breaks them down. What are epoxides? Formed when an enzyme named aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase binds with a carcinogenic substance, epoxides could be called the immediate cause of cancer. The carcinogens cause your body to produce them, and then cancer may ensue.
Complete Guide Health Nutrition by Gary Null, page 483

Reports from Germany indicate that selenium supplementation in patients undergoing radiation therapy for rectal cancer improved quality of life and reduced the appearance of secondary cancers (Hehr et al. 1997) It appears that selenium acts as an immunologic response modifier, normalizing every component of the immune system (Life Extension Report 1995).
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 243

Macrophages—those garbagemen of the bloodstream—are capable of keeping your body clear of tumor cells. Also, since they produce interferon, they can help eliminate the viruses that cause some forms of cancer. But to do their job properly, they need adequate selenium.
Complete Guide Health Nutrition by Gary Null, page 483

Some of the known natural compounds that can reduce insulin resistance include omega-3 fatty acids, curcumin, flavonoids, selenium, and vitamin E. Dietary risk factors must be managed. Therefore, besides restricting dietary sugars, individuals should eat an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables because phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables act as potent anticancer agents.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 598

Selenium can prevent solar damage, pigmentation and dark spots, but because the selenium content of soil varies across the country, not everyone is getting enough to be beneficial,” says Dr. Burke, citing the Southeast in particular as an area deficient in selenium. To quench the free radicals caused by sun exposure and to prevent skin damage, Dr. Burke recommends daily supplements of 50 to 200 micrograms of selenium in the form of 1-selenomethionine, depending on where you live and your family history of cancer. Selenium can be toxic in doses exceeding 100 micrograms, so if you’d like to try this therapy to protect your skin, you should discuss it with your doctor.
Healing With Vitamins by Alice Feinstein, page 64

The importance of selenium to cardiovascular health was demonstrated in the provinces of China where the mineral was deficient. This correlation can be seen throughout the world. Ray Shamberger, M.D., and Charles Willis, M.D., of the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, reported in 1976 that people who live in low-selenium areas have three times more heart disease than those living in areas where the soil and water are rich in the mineral.
Saturated Fat May Save Your Life by Bruce Fife ND, page 142

Selenium also appears to help stimulate antibody formation in response to vaccines. This immunostimulating effect is also enhanced by vitamin E; the presence of these two nutrients can increase antibody formation by 20-30 times, as shown by research.
Staying Healthy With Nutrition by Elson M Haas MD, page 213

Selenium may also aid in protein synthesis, growth and development, and fertility, especially in the male. It has been shown to improve sperm production and motility. Thus, selenium may prevent male infertility; however, we do not know whether selenium deficiency will actually cause male infertility. These are only some of the conjectures about other selenium functions.
Staying Healthy With Nutrition by Elson M Haas MD, page 213

Recommendations regarding Selenium & Cancer

The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) is 50 to 100 micrograms (not milligrams) but few people get even that much. Selenium is so important that I believe that practically every adult should take a 200 microgram selenium supplement every day. This is readily available in health food stores at a minimal price. Organic selenium derived from yeast may be better absorbed man the mineral form, sodium selenite. Very high doses of either can be toxic, however, and should only be taken under a doctor’s prescription. To summarize: selenium has a strong ability to prevent cancers, especially of the internal organs. There is no evidence that selenium interferes with chemotherapy, radiation or a combination of both. On the contrary, there is evidence that it decreases the side effects of such treatments
Antioxidants Against Cancer by Ralph Moss PhD, page 81

The supplements that I’d recommend for cancer prevention are the antioxidants: vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and the mineral selenium.
Anti-Aging Prescriptions by James Duke PhD, page 90

Moderate doses of zinc, beta-carotene, selenium and vitamin E are safe and inexpensive. I believe these results are valid and are an accurate reflection of what antioxidants can do. The finding that two terrible cancers could be prevented by a few pennies worth of supplements received little attention in the mainstream media.
Antioxidants Against Cancer by Ralph Moss PhD, page 83

The National Academy of Sciences advises that no more than 150 micrograms of selenium be taken orally daily. But Revici’s „bivalent negative selenium”— a combination of the mineral with various organic substances, such as the fatty acids of sesame oil—is said to be so non-toxic that huge amounts, up to one million micrograms, have been injected (in the treatment of drug addiction), apparently without any ill effects. In the treatment of cancer the dosage is generally about 10,000 micrograms, still nearly one hundred times the National Academy of Science’s recommended dose.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 112

But in the meantime, I will continue to take my 200 micrograms of selenium a day—the same dose used in the study—and I suggest that you do, too. Excess selenium has been associated with toxicity, so don’t go overboard. If you’re not fond of popping pills, you can get 120 micrograms of selenium in just one Brazil nut. Buy the shelled kind—they’re grown in a central region of Brazil where the soil is richest in the mineral. Other good sources are tuna fish, seafood, wheat germ, and bran.
Ask Dr Weil by Andrew Weil MD, page 207

While everyone needs selenium on an everyday basis, there are certain situations in which the human need for selenium may be increased, or in which additional selenium may be helpful in the treatment of a disease. If you are a male, your selenium needs are greater than if you are female. If you suffer from heart disease or muscular disorders, additional selenium may help you. The same can be said if you suffer from cataracts, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, liver necrosis, iron deficiency anemia, joint problems, heavy metal poisoning, or cancer.
Complete Guide Health Nutrition by Gary Null, page 479

Now, Dr. Mark A. Nelson, a professor and researcher at the Arizona Cancer Center, says, „The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) Trial tripled the intake and suggests that higher levels of selenium may be necessary for cancer prevention.” Until nutritionists conduct more research, though, no one can recommend the best, safest amount you should get. Experts warn selenium is a toxic mineral, which means too much of it, especially from supplements, is unsafe.
Eat and Heal by the Editors of FC&A Medical Publishing, page 98

Doctors at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences concluded that selenium supplements were a safe and effective food supplement for people. There have also been a number of reports of selenium’s toxicity or even its alleged ability to cause cancer. There is no question that excess selenium in the soil (in the form of its compounds, selenite or selenate) can kill grazing animals and could probably in sufficiently large doses kill humans as well. The symptoms of selenium poisoning are readily apparent without a doctor’s assistance, according to Dr. Gerhard Schrauzer, a world expert on the topic. These symptoms include a heavy garlic odor, pallor, nervousness, depression, a metallic taste, skin eruptions, irritability, discolored teeth and hair loss. There is some doubt about the carcinogenicity studies. For instance, one study showed toxic effects for inorganic, but not organic, forms of the mineral.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 112

Selenium Sources

Food Sources:

Although too much selenium can actually be toxic to the system, research indicates the majority of the population is not getting enough of the essential mineral. So, how can we up our intake of selenium and help our bodies fight cancer?
The good news is there are some good dietary sources of selenium: Mushrooms, egg yolks, seafood,  liver (i.e. as used in Gerson therapy) contain the mineral.
Vegetables – garlic, onions, broccoli, asparagus, tomatoes and others – as well as whole grains and seeds can also be good sources of selenium.
However, because the amount of selenium in vegetables and grains depends on the selenium content in the soil in which they are grown, it can be hard for average consumers to know how much of the mineral they are actually getting in their diets.
„The selenium content of food is largely dependent on the content of volcanic ash in the soil on which the food was grown, with higher volcanic ash content yielding higher selenium levels. Soil that is irrigated by seawater, such as much of California’s cropland, also contains higher levels of selenium,” says Sue Gebo in What’s Left to Eat. Accordingly, geography can have a significant impact on diet.
In Antioxidants Against Cancer, author Ralph Moss PhD, says one theory for why cancer rates are so high in Linxian, China, dubbed „the ‘world capital’ of cancer,” is that the soil is deficient in the essential minerals selenium and zinc.
In Earl Mindell’s Supplement Bible, Earl Mindell RPh PhD, suggests part of the reason American men are five times more likely than Japanese men to die from prostate cancer could be because, in general, „the Asian diet contains four times the amount of selenium as the average American diet.”
Another reason it seems to be difficult for Americans to get enough selenium is the processing many of our foods go through before they make it onto grocery store shelves. Mindell points out, for example, that processing wheat into white flour strips it of a great deal of its selenium.
One way to get more selenium in your diet might be to eat more organically grown foods, which some studies have shown to contain more selenium as well as higher levels of beta carotene and vitamin E. These two work together with selenium in cancer prevention, according to Alternative Medicine author Burton Goldberg.
Perhaps a more surefire way to boost your selenium intake is to add supplements to your diet. Mindell advocates the use of supplements, saying, „To me, taking selenium supplements, in addition to eating selenium-rich foods, is good insurance against disease.”
However, for those who oppose taking pills, Dr. Andrew Weil in Ask Dr. Weil says eating just one shelled Brazil nut – grown in the selenium-rich soil of central Brazil – provides 120 micrograms of the mineral, getting you that much closer to the daily target of 200 micrograms.
Although extremely high doses of selenium can have toxic effects, most people are not at risk for such an overdose, and could, in fact, use more of the mineral. Simply adding more selenium-rich foods, such as organically grown vegetables and fruits to your diet, along with supplements, can help reduce your risk of cancer.
And another positive side effect of selenium, according to Eat and Heal, by the Editors of FC&A Medical Publishing, is that it can actually improve your mood. Those editors write, „People who don’t eat enough selenium-rich foods tend to be grumpier than people with a high dietary intake, according to recent research.”
So, go ahead and crack a Brazil nut open and smile.The experts speak on selenium and cancer

You need just three Brazil nuts to get the 200 micro-grams of selenium that studies have shown to have a potent anti-cancer effect. As a bonus, when you eat Brazil nuts, which grow best in the Amazon rain forest, you support the conservation of one of my favorite places on earth. So you’re not only protecting your body, you’re saving the environment.
Anti-Aging Prescriptions by James Duke PhD, page 90

The Garlic Connection. It has long been noted that people who ate garlic, onion, broccoli, and whole grains had a reduced risk of cancer. It turns out that all of these foods are rich in selenium, in fact, selenium is one of the reasons that these particular foods are so healthful for us.
Antioxidants Against Cancer by Ralph Moss PhD, page 77

If you’re not fond of popping pills, you can get 120 micrograms of selenium in just one Brazil nut. Buy the shelled kind—they’re grown in a central region of Brazil where the soil is richest in the mineral. Other good sources are tuna fish, seafood, wheat germ, and bran.
Ask Dr Weil by Andrew Weil MD, page 207

One good food source is Brazil nuts, which happen also to contain at least one other anticancer substance, ellagic acid. One large nut can provide over 50 mcg of selenium. When Cornell scientist Donald J. Lisk and his colleagues ate six Brazil nuts a day for three weeks, their blood levels of selenium rose between 100 and 350 percent.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 122

Selenium—An essential trace mineral found in fruits and vegetables, selenium helps the body produce functional glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme essential for detoxification. Low dietary levels of selenium have been correlated with a higher incidence of cancer; accordingly, supplementation of this nutrient acts as a deterrent against cancer in general.
Alternative Medicine by Burton Goldberg, page 591

Red clover is also rich in calcium, manganese, and selenium, which is a key cancer-fighting antioxidant. I munch the flower heads, but not everyone likes them. Some people dry the flower heads, turn them into a powder, and add them to soups.
Anti-Aging Prescriptions by James Duke PhD, page 61

The debate continues regarding the active ingredients in garlic, but they may include amino acids (like the branched chain amino acids of leucine and isoleucine), S-allyl cysteine, allicin, and organically-bound selenium…Garlic grown on selenium-rich soil was more effective than selenium supplements at inhibiting carcinogen-induced tumors in animals. A study published in the Journal of the National Medical Association referred to garlic as „..a potent, non-specific biologic response modifier.”
Beating Cancer With Nutrition by Patrick Quillin, page 147

A particularly worthy form of selenium is Se-methylselenocysteine, currently available and attracting positive attention. This is the form of selenium found naturally in plants such as broccoli and garlic. A suggested selenium dosage (as a preventive) is 200 mcg a day. The optimal dose for the cancer patient is unknown at this time, but suggestions have ranged from 200-400 mcg a day. Depending upon the selenium content of the soil, foods considered to be good sources of selenium include Brazil nuts, grains, onions, tomatoes, broccoli, chicken, eggs, garlic, liver, seafood, and wheat germ. Americans typically get from 60-100 mcg of selenium a day from dietary sources.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 243

Stephen Cann, associate researcher at the University of British Columbia, gives advice to women who want to fight breast cancer with diet, „Eat different types of seaweed.” These include wakame, kombu, and the more common nori — sea vegetables that might fight cancer because of their iodine and selenium. „We think it’s very important for the breast,” Cann says about iodine. This mineral, he believes, may prevent and even shrink breast tumors by combining with certain fatty acids and stopping cancerous cells from multiplying. And without the selenium, iodine doesn’t do its job properly.
Eat and Heal by the Editors of FC&A Medical Publishing, page 317

In parts of Europe, pumpkin seeds are the standard treatment for benign prostate enlargement. The seeds are rich in zinc, selenium and other minerals that have been shown to reduce prostate cancer risk. Typical daily dosage: Eat one-quarter cup of the seeds.
Bottom Line Yearbook 2002 by Bottom Line Personnel, page 76

The intake of selenium and other nutrients from plant foods may be influenced by the type of farming practices used. In a preliminary investigation, organically grown foods were, in some cases, nutritionally superior to conventionally grown foods (Smith, 1993).
Cancer And Natural Medicine by John Boik, page 147

The Journal of Nutrition reported that selenium-enriched broccoli is protective against chemically induced mammary and colon cancer in rats (Davis et al. 2002). Note: While selenium is contributing to the lower incidence of malignancy, the anticancer affects of broccoli should also be factored into the defense.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 242

You can find selenium in grains, shellfish, poultry, garlic, and egg yolks.
Natural Cures And Gentle Medicines by The Editors of FC&A Medical Publishing, page 266

Commercial preparations of selenium include inorganic selenium (sodium se-lenite) and various organic compounds of selenium. It has been reported that sodium selenite is not absorbed adequately, whereas organic selenium, including yeast-selenium, is absorbed very well. For this reason, yeast-selenium is considered best for human consumption
Choices In Healing by Michael Lerner, page 612

Throughout history and around the world, people from Mexico to Russia have given mushrooms magical powers. In reality, there’s nothing miraculous about these fungi at all, but they can make you healthier. Although mushrooms are largely made up of water, they are also high in protein, carbohydrates, and fiber. They are a potent source of vitamin D, riboflavin, and niacin, plus minerals like potassium, selenium, and copper.
Eat and Heal by the Editors of FC&A Medical Publishing, page 252

In addition, some foods, such as lima beans, soy beans, and other soy products, seem to have medicinal capabilities because of the presence of isoflavones and phytoestrogens, or plant estrogens. These substances actually curb the activity of the excess estrogen in the body’s tissues. Phytoestrogens can also be found in other vegetables and in fruits, along with useful amounts of nonsoluble fiber, beta-carotene, and selenium.
Complete Encyclopedia Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 72

A new approach is now being explored: how to enrich our food with antioxidant and protective agents. The simpler approach is to add antioxidant vitamins to basic foods. Studies address the genetic engineering of food to prevent heart disease and cancer [105], and such measures as growing garlic with selenium fertilization [95]. The authors of these studies state that „in view of the impossible task of persuading the public to eat only those foods that are presumably good for their health . . . the time has come to enrich our foods with known cancer preventive agents so that their benefit can be realized fully over the life span of the individual.”
Every Persons Guide To Antioxidants by John R Smythies MD, page 103

Plentiful in poultry, selenium may help to protect against cancer, cataracts, heart disease, and macular degeneration. Dark-meat turkey is particularly high in this mineral (3 ounces of cooked turkey have 35mcg of selenium, or 50% of the Daily Value).
Fight Back With Food by Readers Digest, page 73

To get more selenium in your diet, try tuna; a three-ounce can serves up a full 99 micrograms. Or treat yourself to an ounce of baked tortilla chips for a whopping 284 micrograms.
Healing With Vitamins by Alice Feinstein, page 64

Selenium comes from the soil, and fruits and vegetables that come from selenium-rich soil are more likely to contain the mineral.
Natures Medicines by Gale Maleskey, page 363

If you eat a normal diet with plenty of unprocessed foods, you should be fine. You’ll find selenium in many grains, nuts, and vegetables; meat, especially organ meats like liver; and seafood.
Natural Cures And Gentle Medicines by The Editors of FC&A Medical Publishing, page 242

A new form of selenium is Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMC), a naturally occurring selenium compound found to be an effective chemopreventive agent. SeMC is a selenoamino acid that is synthesized by plants such as garlic and broccoli.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 277

Essiac formula was given to nurse Rene Caisse more than 80 years ago by a woman whose breast cancer had been healed by this Ojibway Indian herbal preparation. The formula is composed of four herbs (burdock root, slippery elm, sheep sorrel, and Indian rhubarb). The burdock root contains inulin, which improves the function of white blood cells. This root also contains Vitamin A and selenium, which scavenge free radicals and chromium which regulates blood sugar levels.
A Physicians Guide To Natural Health Products That Work By James Howenstine MD, page 156

Selenium Dosage/Administration

It has been reported that selenium doses of about 250-300 micrograms a day (diet and supplements) would be helpful in preventing cancer. If an average person consumes 125 to 150 micrograms of selenium a day, an additional supplemental amount of 100 micrograms is unlikely to produce any major side effects.
Choices In Healing by Michael Lerner, page 612

Recommendation: Take selenium aspartate in a dose of 100 to 200 micrograms daily..
Doctors Complete Guide Vitamins Minerals by Mary D Eades MD, page 496

Selenium is a mineral with anticancer activity. But the anticancer effects of selenium are greatly reduced when there is an insufficient intake of vitamin E. Rats who receive a normal amount of vitamin E in their diets showed a 45 percent decrease in tumors when they were given selenium. But they only had a 25 percent decrease if their diet was low in vitamin E. In fact, vitamin E was considered more important than selenium in decreasing „oxidant stress” to the fat of the breast.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 74

In the treatment of cancer the dosage is generally about 10,000 micrograms, still nearly one hundred times the National Academy of Science’s recommended dose. Revici’s treatment is more complicated than just organic selenium. He only uses selenium in patients whom he deems to be in a „catabolic,” as opposed to an „anabolic,” state. He has devised a number of urine tests to find whether a patient is in one condition or the other. Selenium is given when the urine has a low specific gravity, a high surface tension and a pH above 6.0. The alkalinity of the urine is supposed to reflect the state of the body’s defenses against tumors.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 112

Selenium levels show a U-shaped correlation with prostate cancer. In other words, both low and high blood levels of selenium increase risk. This simply means that we need enough selenium to maintain good health, yet too much can be dangerous. A practical compromise is to use a supplement that provides 100 I.U. of vitamin E (up to 400 I.U. would be fine), and about 50 micrograms of selenium.
20 Natural Ways To Reduce The Risk Of Prostate Cancer By James Scala PHD, page 60

Unlike selenomethionine, which is incorporated into protein in place of methionine, SMSC is not incorporated into any protein, thereby offering a completely bioavailable compound. In animal studies, SMSC has been shown to be 10 times less toxic than any other known form of selenium. The recommended dose of Se-methylselenocysteine (SMSC) is 200-400 mcg a day for cancer patients.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 316

Selenium Interactions

Certain metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and silver block the action of selenium. . . . Recent laboratory experiments have shown that high doses of zinc block the action of selenium. Therefore, one has to be careful about taking excessive amounts of zinc (over 20 milligrams per day from diet and supplements) while taking selenium [emphasis added].
Choices In Healing by Michael Lerner, page 619

I think the selenium and saffron complement one another. Selensaff, a product made by Scientific Botanicals (see Resources), is used in cancer therapy to create a redox effect—a process of improving cell function by enhancing both oxygen uptake and the excretion of oxygen waste.
Herbal Medicine Healing Cancer by Donald R Yance Jr, page 148

Zinc is important because it is an antagonist to selenium and may in itself enhance or inhibit different tumors. Selenium in minute quantities is essential to human health. According to Prasad, among the minerals, „only selenium has been shown to have a role in cancer prevention”:

Choices In Healing by Michael Lerner, page 619

Vitamin E and selenium protected animals against the potent carcinogenic effects of DMBA from tobacco.
Beating Cancer With Nutrition by Patrick Quillin, page 164

Selenium acts as an antioxidant and strengthens the body’s immune defense system. Thus, many of the effects which are produced by vitamin E deficiency can be reversed or prevented by selenium. Some laboratory experiments have suggested that the combination of vitamin E and selenium is more effective in preventing cancer than either of them alone.
Choices In Healing by Michael Lerner, page 619

However, one experiment has demonstrated increased susceptibility to DMBA-induced tumors when selenium deficiency was aggravated by high dietary levels of polyunsatu-rated fatty acids, and protection by a physiological supplement of selenium (0.1 pg/g) to the diet (Ip and Sinha, 1981). The interpretation of these results is further complicated because of the varied protocols used in these experiments and the knowledge that selenium interacts with many other nutrients, such as heavy metals in the diet.
Diet Nutrition Cancer by National Research Council, page 169

In some experiments, dietary zinc exceeding nutritional requirements has been shown to suppress chemically induced tumors in rats and hamsters, but when given in drinking water it counteracts the protective effect of selenium in mice…While the evidence on the effect of zinc on tumor development is complex, it strongly suggests that, in general, one should be cautious about taking zinc supplements if one has cancer. And since selenium has a wide spectrum of demonstrable anticancer effects, cancer patients should be particularly cautious with zinc, since it is a selenium antagonist. I have seen many cancer patients taking moderately large amounts of zinc as part of a comprehensive megavitamin nutritional supplement program. In view of the available scientific evidence, this is another critical example of an area where uninformed nutritional supplementation may do harm.
Choices In Healing by Michael Lerner, page 612

In addition, statistically significant protection from high levels of selenium and alpha-tocopherol occurred only when gamma- tocopherol concentrations were also high (Helzl-sourer et al. 2000).
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 258

Selenium and co-enzyme Q-10. Exhibits anticancer activity especially in blocking development of colon cancer and spread of breast cancer.
Food Your Miracle Medicine by Jean Carper, page 481

Selenium & cancer Statistics

In a December 1996 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Larry Clark presented evidence that supplemental selenium could reduce cancer death rates by as much as 50%. 1,312 patients were given 200 mcg. of selenium daily. The patients receiving selenium had a rise of 67% in their blood selenium level.
A Physicians Guide To Natural Health Products That Work By James Howenstine MD, page 148

The patients receiving selenium had a 67% decrease in cancer of the prostate, a 58 percent decrease in colon or rectal cancer and a 45% decrease in lung cancer. This suggests that possibly up to 100,000 lives a year might be saved in the USA by the simple addition of selenium to the diet.
A Physicians Guide To Natural Health Products That Work By James Howenstine MD, page 149

An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) by Clark et al. (1996) showed that 200 mcg of supplemental selenium a day reduced overall cancer mortality by 50% in humans compared to a placebo group not receiving supplemental selenium. This 9-year study demonstrated that a low-cost mineral supplement could cut the risk of dying from cancer in half in certain individuals.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 1255

In a recent five-year study of nearly 30,000 rural Chinese people, researchers from the NCI found that daily doses of these three nutrients reduced cancer deaths by 13%.
Alternative Medicine by Burton Goldberg, page 590

But what if you already have cancer? Again, the research shows a prolongation of lifespan with proper supplementation. In a study in Cancer Letters (Evangelou et al. 1997), animals with malignant tumors given high doses of vitamins C and E and selenium manifested a significant prolongation of the mean survival time. Complete remission of tumors developed in 16.8% of the animals.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 1256

Dr. Raymond Shamberger was also among the first to discover the link between low selenium content in the soil and increasing numbers of deaths from cancer. In 1976, he pointed out that the cities and states with high selenium content in the soil also had significantly lower rates of cancer, especially of the digestive and urinary systems.
Antioxidants Against Cancer by Ralph Moss PhD, page 77

A Powerful Antioxidant „selenium is a crucial mineral in the battle against prostate cancer,” says Dr. Schachter. In one study of hundreds of men, a daily intake of 200 micrograms of selenium cut the incidence of prostate cancer by 60 percent.
Alternative Cures by Bill Gottlieb, page 518

The statistics for breast cancer are particularly striking. „The higher the selenium, the lower the breast cancer,” said Prof. Ladas. Similar associations have been found with leukemia, as well as cancers of the intestines, rectum, ovary, prostate, lung, pancreas, skin and bladder. In Yugoslavia, scientists studied 33 patients with breast cancer. These women had selenium levels in their bloodstream only half those of healthy volunteers.
Cancer Therapy by Ralph W Moss PhD, page 112

Although the study failed to show the effectiveness of selenium in altering the course of either basal or squamous cell carcinoma, selenium impacted the incidence of other types of malignancies with amazing success (Clark et al. 1996). The overall reduction in cancer incidence was 37% in the selenium-supplemented group; a 50% reduction in cancer mortality was observed over a 10-year period. The following are the site-specific reductions in cancer incidence observed in the study: colon-rectal cancers (58%), lung cancer (46%), and prostate cancer (63%). A selenium deficiency appears to increase the risk of prostate cancer fourfold to fivefold. It was determined that, as the male population ages, selenium levels decrease, paralleling an increase in prostate cancer (Brooks et al. 2001).
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 242

In a study published in the journal of the National Cancer Institute, the relationship between serum levels of selenium and the development of upper digestive tract cancer was explored (Mark et al, 2000). The relative risk of esophageal cancer was 0.56 in individuals in the highest quartile of selenium level compared with those in the lowest quartile. The corresponding relative risk of gastric cardia cancer was 0.47. Based on the data, the researchers calculate that 26.4% of esophageal and gastric cardia cancers are attributable to low selenium levels.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 242

For many studies about SELENIUM and cancer see Scientific Studies Database (click here) 

Studies on Selenium and Anti-Tumor

Best of health!

Cristian

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Garlic (lat: Allium sativum / ro: Usturoi )

CLICK AICI pentru  limba ROmana(traducerea „aproximativa” utilizand google translate).

Scriu articolele in engleza in ultima vreme  de cand incerc as fac siteul disponibil in limba engleza ,la fel cum am facut si cartea disponibila in limba engleza(click aici),  odata cu colaborarile incepute cu publicatiile si siteurile de specialitate internationale precum NaturalNews (click aici) si cu renumitele centre de cercetare si tratare alternativa a cancerului din lume (click aici) ; centre precum institutul Gerson (click aici) , clinica Issels (click aici), clinica Hope4Cancer (click aici), Fundatia Independenta de Cercetare a Cancerului ICRF Inc (click aici) cancertutor si altele; revin cu mai multe detalii despre centrele cu care acest site este oficial partener ( le sprijina oficial si este sprinjinit  reciproc oficial ,  inclusiv prin schimb de experienta in tratarea cancerului si actualizare de informatii si studii de ultima ora intreprinse in domeniu ).
Sper totusi ca traducerea in romana oferita de google sa fie pe intelesul dvs pina gasesc o solutie mai buna sau timp si resurse sa traduc. Daca sunt probleme va rog sa imi spuneti.
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English: A basket of garlic (allium sativum) o...

English: A basket of garlic (allium sativum) offered for sale at the farmers’ market in Rochester, Minnesota (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In a review of the research on garlic by Judith Dausch and Daniel Nixon in a 1990 issue of  Preventive Medicine, they note that there have been hundreds of animal and human studies since the 1930s on the potential benefits of garlic or its active ingredients. Since the 1970s, most research has focused on its antibacterial activity, lipid-lowering effects, antiplatelet aggregation effects, drug metabolizing properties and its anti-carcinogenic actions.They conclude that „evidence suggests a potential role for garlic or its components in several areas including prevention or control of cardiovascular disorders, treatment of viral and fungal conditions and prevention and treatment ofcertain cancers.”(1075).
As of September 1996, the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) had identified 250 citations in the medical literature for garlic, of which 171 pertained to cancer. Of the 89 studies they reviewed, ten were carried out with human subjects, 61 were animal studies and ten were in vitro studies. All of the human studies the OAM evaluated were studies of
garlic as preventive for cancer and showed mixed results, with Chinese studies generally showing positive results for the cancers examined and Western studies showing no association.

It was first believed by researchers that the single beneficial element in garlic was allicin, the  compound formed when the bulb is crushed. Allicin is an unstable compound that is strongly antibacterial and mainly responsible for garlic’s characteristic odor.

In vitro studies show that allicin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells. The phytochemical also exhibits antigenotoxic action. But the anticancer effect of allicin in humans remains uncertain, because of its low stability and poor bioavailability.

A study conducted at the Nanjing Medical University, China, concluded that allicininhibited the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells in vitro at non-cytotoxic concentration through down-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), urokinase receptor (uPAR) and heparanase mRNA [1]. The researchers tested the effect of allicin on invasion and metastasis of human colon cancer cell line LoVo in vitro by using migratory test, adhesion test and Transwell chamber experiment. Allicin showed an inhibitive effects on growth of the cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The phytochemicals suppressed the movement, adhesion and invasive capability of carcinoma cells.

A study by the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, demonstrated the antiproliferative function of allicin on two leukemia cell lines (HL60 and U937) [2]. They found that allicin showed anticancer effect by inducing growth inhibition, apoptotic events such as blebbing, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. Allicin reduced glutathione in the cytosol and mitochondria and changed the intracellular redox status.

Siddique and Afzal of the Aligarh Muslim University, India, investigated the antigenotoxic potential of allicin in cultured human lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges induced by the genotoxic methyl methanesulphonate [3]. They found that allicin treatment reduced the damage caused by the genotoxin, as illustrated by lower levels of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges.

[1] Effects of allicin on invasion and metastasis of colon cancer LoVo cell line in vitro. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009 May 26;89(20):1382-6.
[2] Allicin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in HL60 and U937 cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Aug;19(8):524-35.
[3] Antigenotoxic effect of allicin against methyl methanesulphonate induced genotoxic damage. J Environ Biol. 2005 Jul;26(3):547-50. 

But in addition to allicin, researchers have discovered 32 other sulfur compounds in garlic, along with 17 amino acids,
Germanium, Calcium, Selenium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Zinc, and small amounts of vitamins A, B1 and C. The main active components in garlic seem to be the various sulfur compounds, including Allicin, Allixin, diallyl Disulfide, diallyl Trisulfide and thioallyl amino acids, as well as other compounds formed during cooking and food preparation.(1075)
Dausch and Nixon report that, with regards to cancer research, the majority of human studies have been epidemiological in nature. Others have been in vitro or animals studies of the possible role of garlic in the prevention of cancer. According to Dausch and Nixon:
One possible beneficial effect of garlic or its components may be their ability to enhance the body’s mechanism for eliminating exogenous substances including carcinogens. In some studies garlic has been shown to have a stimulating effect on certain enzymes that are known to be involved in  removing toxic substances. Antihepatotoxic [liver detoxifying] activity of garlic sulfur components have been described in vitro and vivo (1074).

This capacity to enhance liver detoxification could potentially be of great interest to cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, since the it is the liver that functions to eliminate the toxic chemotherapy from the body.
Li and colleagues at the Strang-Cornell Cancer Research Laboratory describe the research on garlic in a 1995 article in Oncology Reports:
…Based on experimental and epidemiological evidences garlic could be classified as an anticarcinogen.
The specific phase(s) of the carcinogenic process, i.e., initiation, promotion, or progression at which garlic or its constituents may exert its biological effect, however, remains to be determined in many cases…
Sources and mode of extraction of specific constituents from garlic showed an inhibitory effect on the production of DNA adducts initiated by chemical carcinogens on mammary cell DNA.
Postulates to explain the anti-carcinogenic effect of garlic constituents have been proposed and these range from bio-inactivation of carcinogens, induction of free radical scavenging mechanisms, enhanced detoxification involving the glutathione pathway, and more recently, it has been suggested the cancer cells may be growth arrested in the G1-G0 phase of the cell cycle…(1078)
Describing their 1991 research on one of the active components of garlic, Maurya and Singh conclude:
Diallyl sulfide [DAS], an organosulfur compound identified as the flavor component in garlic, has been shown to inhibit chemically-induced neoplasia of forestomach and lung in mice. Even though the exact mechanism(s) of anti-neoplastic activity of DAS is not known, several independent studies suggest that this effect may, at least in part, be due to the elevation of glutathione-S-transferase [detoxification] activity (1079).

Although most research with garlic and cancer has focused on prevention, intriguing evidence exists concerning the potential for garlic as an adjunct to therapy for existing cancers. According to Boik:
„theoretically, garlic may inhibit cancer by a variety of mechanisms, including reduced angiogenesis, reduced platelet aggregation, and increased fibrinolysis (discussed below)” (1180).
Dutch researchers found that compounds in garlic inhibit endothelial umbilical cell proliferation in vivo, an indication that they might also inhibit tumor angiogenic activity, which also involves the rapid proliferation of endothelial cells.

The antiangiogenic effect of thiols, compounds found in garlic, may be related to their ability to inhibit free-radical production by macrophages. Macrophages are found in great numbers in solid tumors, and can comprise 10 to 30 percent of the cells in a tumor. Under the low-oxygen conditions found in the interiors of solid tumors, macrophages secrete large amounts of angiogenesis factors, perhaps because of the stimuli are similar to those found in situations where wound healing is
required (1182).

According to Koch:
We showed previously that thiol-containing compounds inhibited the production of macrophagemediated angiogenic activity. Since thiol containing compounds may act on macrophages by affecting activation and inhibiting the production of oxygen free-radicals, we studied the effects of oxygen free-radical scavengers on production of angiogenic activity…We conclude that oxygen free-radical scavengers are potent inhibitors of the production of macrophage-mediated angiogenic
activity (1083).

Compounds found in garlic might also influence angiogenesis through their effects on the process of fibrinolysis, or the breaking down of fibrin. Fibrin is the protein material that comprises the essential portion of blood clots and is formed as a result of the process of inflammation. The area around tumors is commonly inflamed and a provisional stroma, or support structure, composed of fibrin forms around the tumor. According to Boik, the formation of this fibrin stroma may be the
most important single precondition for tumor angiogenesis to occur. Boik cites research showing that the removal of this fibrin through the process of fibrinolysis terminates angiogenesis. He also speculates that by increasing fibrinolysis, the periphery of the tumor may be exposed to greater immune attack (1084).

A number of human studies have been carried out on the fibrinolytic properties of garlic that might have a bearing on some forms of cardiovascular disease. Some of these studies also indicate potential benefit to people with cancer.

Italian researcher Legnani and colleagues found the following responses to garlic ingestion (900 mg daily of dried powder) in a study of 12 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation:
Total euglobulin fibrinolytic activity…[was] significantly higher 4 and 6 hours after garlic…ingestion, and no differences were recorded between treatments. After 14 days of treatment, t-PA [tissue plasminogen activator, the principle mediator of fibrinolysis] activity was significantly higher after garlic…Platelet aggregation…was significantly inhibited 2 and 4 hours after garlic ingestion; platelet aggregation values were also significantly lower after 7 and 14 days of garlic treatment (1085).

Arora also assessed the fibrinolysis-enhancing properties of garlic in patients with ischemic heart disease and in healthy control subjects. Though blood fibrinolytic activity was enhanced, the peak activity occurred at the 4th week of garlic therapy but was not sustained despite its continuous use and returned to about the pre-garlic values at the 12th week. Garlic withdrawal did not cause any further change in blood fibrinolytic activity (1086).

Another study in humans, this one a placebo-controlled double-blind study by Kiesewetter and colleagues, demonstrated a significant decrease in thrombocyte aggregation through the administration of 800 mg of garlic daily powder over a period of four weeks. Plasma viscosity was also shown to decrease (1087). Both effects lessen the likelihood of tumor cell arrest at potential metastatic sites.
Feng and resveracolleagues found that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) at high levels had an inhibitory effect on T cell activation, but at appropriate concentrations augmented the activation of T lymphocytes, immune cells that might play a role in the immune response to cancer. In addition:
DATS can antagonize the inhibition of tumor-derived immunosuppressive factors produced by S180 cells and Ehrlich ascitic cancer cells on the activation of T cells, and reduce the inhibitory rate significantly…When macrophages were pretreated with DATS for 24 hours, the cytotoxicity of macrophages to three tumor cell lines was significantly higher than that in corresponding control group…These results indicate that DATS can augment the activation of T cells and enhance the antitumor function of macrophages, suggesting that DATS may be potentially useful in tumor therapy (1088).

Evidence also exists of a direct anticancer effect with garlic.

An in vitro study by Xie examined the effect of garlic oil on the DNA content of the cancer cell cycle using flow cytometric analysis:
This technique may measure DNA content of 5000 cells per second and traces the dynamic changes  in the cell proliferation cycle and offers a hint for designing clinical treatment protocol, monitor prognosis and elucidate the mechanisms of antitumor drugs. The authors’ previous studies showed significant effect of garlic oil on prolongation of life expectancy and inhibition of tumor growth in mice. Using FCM [flow cytometric analysis] the authors analyzed the effect of garlic oil on cell
cycle in S180 tumor cells, 2-6 hours after single administration or multiple administration. The number of cells in S phase rapidly decreased, in G1 phase increased. This suggests garlic oil may blockade cells…progress from G1 phase to S phase and result in accumulation of cells in G1 phase and directly inhibit the synthesis of DNA and the cell cycle (1089).

A second study by Xie and colleagues on the effect of Kang ai-bao II on cancer cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy found that this garlic preparation had a destructive effect on DNA and RNA of cancer cells (1090).

Dausch and Nixon describe a 1985 Chinese study by Xiyu that compared the cytoxic effects of fresh garlic, diallyl trisulfide, 5-FU, mitomycin and cis-DDP on human gastric cancer cells in vitro.

Mitomycin exerted the strongest effect, but fresh garlic also had a marked killing effect. Diallyl trisulfide was stronger than 5-FU against this gastric cell line (1091).

Li and colleagues also demonstrated an antiproliferative effect with aged garlic (AGE) and two of its allyl constituents in a human breast carcinoma model. They determined that „aged garlic extract  demonstrated substantial inhibitory effect on the cancer cell lines; these AGE treated cells had substantially lowered growth rate than that of the cells treated with each compound alone”(1092).
In a 1993 study published in Oncology, Hiromitsu Takeyama and colleagues examined the effect of an amino acid compound derived from garlic, S allyl cysteine, or SAC on nine human melanoma cell line in vitro. They found that growth was inhibited in all melanoma cell lines, while it was not inhibited in three lymphoblastoid cell lines. The researchers also found that morphological changes were induced in the melanoma cells by SAC and that the cells appeared more differentiated and
possibly had reverted to a less malignant state (1093).

In another study examining the effect of garlic constituents on a melanoma cell line in culture, David Hoon and colleagues at the UCLA Medical Center found that an extract of aged garlic significantly inhibited the growth a the melanoma cells and „appeared to be a more potent or an equivalent inducer of differentiation of melanoma compared to some known cytokines and agents…The modulatory effect on cell growth and differentiation by [garlic extract] may have potential benefit for prevention and control of melanoma progression in humans” (1094).

Similarly, in a 1993 study using canine mammary tumor cells in vitro, Sundaram and Milner found that three water soluble constituents of garlic did not significantly inhibit cell growth, while two oilsoluble compounds, diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide, did significantly inhibit growth and a third, diallyl trisulfide, resulted in cell death (1095).

Dausch and Nixon also summarize numerous in vivo studies with mice demonstrating immunomodulatory and anticancer effects:

* In a 1964 study, Kimura and Yamamoto described the effects of garlic extracts on a transplanted ascites sarcoma in rats. When injected interperitoneally, the extract inhibited tumor cell proliferation by producing irregularities in chromosomes during cell division (1096);
* In a 1967 study, Fujiwara and Natata found that when mice were injected twice at a seven-day interval with a suspension of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells pretreated with garlic extract, they developed a strong immunity to the same type of tumor cells. They attributed this acquired immunity to the interaction of allicin with tumor cell proteins (1097).
* In a 1973 study, Nakata treated a variety of tumor cell types in mice with fresh garlic extract. Tumor development was found to be reversed in mice injected with Ehrlich ascites tumor and Yoshida sarcoma cells that were preincubated with garlic solution (1098)
* In a 1981 study, Cheng and Tung tested numerous compounds in Sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing mice and found that multiple intratumoral injections of allicin or allithiamine resulted in significant tumor inhibition (1099);
* In a 1981 study, Dhillon found a substance purified from garlic effective in inhibiting the growth of two Morris hepatomas in rats (1100);
* In a 1982 study, Criss compared the effectiveness in inhibiting Morris hepatoma 3924A in rats by dietary administration versus subcutaneous injection of garlic extract. Subcutaneous injection lowered tumor growth by 30-50 percent compared to 10 to 25 percent by dietary administration (1101) ;
* In a 1983 study, Choy found a 42 to 59 percent inhibitory effect by the oral administration of a garlic suspension on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumors in the peritoneal cavities of tumorinoculated mice. Survival time was increased significantly by the administration of garlic (1102);
* In a 1986 study, Lau and Marsh studied the immunotherapy effects of garlic extract and other agents on transplanted transitional cell carcinoma in mice. Intralesional administration was found to be much more effective in inhibiting growth than the intraperitoneal route. Also, five intralesional treatments of garlic extract to the bladders of mice with transplanted transitional cell carcinoma resulted in inhibition of tumor growth as well as the production of macrophages and lymphocytes, leading to the destruction of tumor cells. It was theorized the result was due to enhanced production of lymphokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, that could result in increased natural killer cell activity (1103).
In a follow-up study, Marsh confirmed that garlic administered intravesically (into the bladder) was a more effective immunotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma than was BCG: Intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Corynebacterium parvum (CP), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and an extract of Allium sativum (AS) was studied in mice transplanted intravesically with mouse bladder tumor cells (MBT-2)…Immunotherapy with BCG (2 X 10(6) CFU), CP (250 micrograms), KLH (50 micrograms), or AS (25 mg) was administered directly into the bladder via urethral catheter on day 1, day 6, or days 1 and 6. On day 21 the bladders and spleens were excised and weighed, and the bladders were examined macroscopically and microscopically for evidence of tumor. The results of the study showed that two treatments given one and six days after tumor transplant yielded the lowest tumor incidence and that CP and AS appeared equally effective or even slightly more effective than BCG in this model. These results suggest that clinical evaluation of CP or AS may be worthwhile (1104).

The efficacy of garlic with bladder cancer in vivo was also evaluated by Donald Lamm at West Virginia University using an extract of aged garlic. The researchers ranomized 72 mice into six groups and inoculated each with a transitional cell carcinoma line:
Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in the groups which received AGE [aged garlic extract]…relative to Saline controls. All doses of AGE significantly reduced tumor volume when compared to the Saline control. There was no statistical difference between the group receiving…garlic extract and the BCG control group. The highly beneficial reduction in tumor growth with AGE immunotherapy suggests that AGE will prove to be a highly effective form of immunotherapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (1105).

In an Indian study, Unnikrishnan and Kuttan examined the antitumor activity of extracts of eight commonly used spices in India in mice transplanted intraperitoneally with Ehrlich ascites tumor:
Oral administration of extracts of black pepper, asafoetida, pippali and garlic could increase the percentage of life span in these mice by 64.7%, 52.9%, 47% and 41.1%, respectively…Garlic extract and asafoetida extracts also inhibited two stage chemical carcinogenesis induced by 7,12 dimethyl benzanthracene and croton oil on mice skin with significant reduction in papilloma formation. These results indicate the potential use of spices as anti-cancer agents as well as antitumor
promoters (1106).

Several studies indicate that garlic enhance the effectiveness of some chemotherapies or inhibit the mutagenic effect of chemotherapeutic drugs on normal cells. Pan and colleagues in 1988 examined the cytotoxic effects of allyl trisulfide when combined with three chemotherapeutic agents on a moderately differentiated human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line:
The inhibitory effects of [allyl trisulfide], MMC [mitomycin] alone or combined on MGC [human gastric adenocarcinoma] tumor in nude mice were observed…The in vitro test of combinations of two drugs showed that [allyl trisulfide] plus MMC or 5 FU plus DDP had markedly synergistic effect on MGC cells…The inhibition test on the growth of MGC tumor in nude mice indicated that the inhibition rates of [allyl trisulfide], MMC alone or combined were 58.3%, 86.3% and 84.3%.

The systemic toxic effect of MMC alone was severe, whereas [allyl trisulfide] alone or MMC plus [allyl trisulfide] showed mild toxicity. For this reason, [allyl trisulfide] plus MMC is recommended for clinical trials on poorly differentiated gastric cancer (1107).

Using a thioallyl derived from garlic, Yellin and his colleagues examined the relationship between glutathione metabolism and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. They used a battery of cell lines derived from previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas:
An inverse relationship between GSH [glutathione] levels and cisplatin sensitivity was identified…Cells were treated with S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a thioallyl derivative isolated from garlic (Allium sativum)…Pretreatment with SAC to lower cellular glutathione levels followed by exposure to cisplatin significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, while SAC alone had no effect on cell growth (1108). In this study, while the garlic derivative used demonstrated no anticancer activity itself, it did enhance the effects of cisplatin. Another intriguing implication of this study was that the presence of the antioxidant glutathione in some way inhibited the sensitivity to cisplatin, evidence that antioxidant supplementation might not be useful for patients using some chemotherapies.

In another study indicating garlic’s potential usefulness as an adjunct to chemotherapies, Chinese researchers Zhao and Huang screened vegetables for possible inhibition of mutagenicity caused by antineoplastic drugs:
We found that 7 out of 11 kinds of commonly eaten vegetables had the ability to inhibit mutagenicity caused by chemical drugs such as Mitomycin C, Bleomycinia, Fluorouracil, Cis- Diaminodichloroplatinum, Arabinosylcytosin and mustargen. They were garlic, green Chinese onion, onion, garlic bulb, tomato, cucumber and water radish…We believe that our results can be
helpful in the preparation of cancer patients’ diet, who are receiving chemotherapy and in the prevention of cancer (1109).

Dausch and Nixon cite several studies that examine the mutagenic potential of garlic. Substances that are mutagenic promote mutations, or permanent changes in the DNA in the body’s cells. Some mutations can potentially lead to cancer. Garlic has been reported to be mutagenic in several species of bacteria, but two studies with mice demonstrated no mutagenic effects. In fact, another study with mice cited by Dausch and Nixon showed that diallyl sulfide was among the most effective agents in inhibiting chemically-induced nuclear aberrations.

However, a more recent study by M. Takada published in the Japanese Journal of Cancer Research shows a possible cancer-promoting effect by some organosulfur compounds found in garlic and onions:
Four organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions were examined for modifying effects…on neoplasia of the liver in male F344 rats…Isothiocyanic acid isobutyl ester (IAIE), dipropyl trisulfide (DPT), and allyl mercapton (AM) exerted enhancing effects on their development, while dimethyl trisulfide also tended to increase them…These results suggest that IAIE, DPT, and AM promote rat hepatocarcinogenesis and their promoting effect might be caused by increased cell proliferation
with increased polyamine biosynthesis. In evaluating relationships between diet and cancer, it is thus appropriate to consider not only a possible protective role of garlic and onions, but also enhancing effects (1110).

The research with garlic seems to indicate it may have promise as an adjunctive therapy for cancer because of direct anticancer effect, immune stimulation and also possible inhibition of metastases. However, research is unclear on how a patient might best use garlic.
Garlic researcher Robert Lin, Ph.D. advises consumers to beware that manufacturers wishing to give the impression that allicin is the main active component in garlic may fortify their products with this readily made compound. According to Lin:
Allicin is a transient and highly unstable compound which is produced when garlic’s cellular structures are ruptured due to cutting and crushing…Once allicin is formed, it decomposes rapidly and is mostly lost within one day. Since allicin has a germicidal power when added to cultured  micro-organisms, some garlic products have been promoted as drugs for treating infectious diseases. The truth is that almost all cooked garlic and garlic products (including so-called garlic supplements) contain insignificant amounts of allicin. Further, there is no compelling evidence showing that allicin is the active compound in the body (1111).

Sundaram and Milner concluded in their study which showed diallyl disulfide inhibited proliferation of canine mammary tumor cells:
Essential oils of garlic are known to contain approximately 60% DADS …It is impossible at this point to extrapolate the quantity of garlic or its oil that would need to be consumed by human beings to potentially reduce the growth of neoplastic tissue. Nevertheless, intakes of 20 grams per day have been reported in some areas of the world. This intake has been correlated with a reduction in the incidence of stomach cancers (1112).

And Legnani found significant effects on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation the following responses to garlic ingestion in humans at a level of 900 mg daily of dried powder and Kiesewetter found a clinical effect in humans at a level of 800 mg per day.
Studies have also employed various garlic derivatives, both oil soluble and water soluble, and, in animal studies, used both oral administration and injection. These studies seem to indicate that injection is a more effective route of administration, though at least three studies did show life extension in animals given garlic orally. Further, studies by Marsh and Lamm seem to indicate that garlic extracts given intravesically in mice may be significantly more useful as an immunotherapy
for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder than BCG, while the studies by Takeyama and Hoon indicate the potential for garlic to inhibit the growth of melanoma.

A caveat for cancer patients interested in the use of garlic as an adjunct to therapy is research by Pruthi showing that, due to the instability of numerous sulfur compounds, the application of heat above 60 degrees centigrade can cause not only the pungency, but possibly also the medicinal properties of garlic to be lost (1113). However, a cold-aged extract from Japanese whole-clove garlic has been developed that allows for the conversion of some of the active components to be converted
in less irritating compounds which also have less odor (1114).

Richard Grossman, a New York-based authority on herbal medicine, recommends Kyolic brand garlic for patients interested in an aged garlic product which is less pungent than fresh whole garlic.

Garlic contains many phytochemicals with therapeutic effects, including antibacterial, antifungal, hypolipidemic, hypoglycaemic, hypoglycaemic, antithrombotic, antioxidant and anticancer. In vitro studies and epidemiological studies have suggested that garlic has anticancer properties. Garlic contains both water soluble and oil soluble sulphur compounds with anticancer activity. Because garlic is mostly consumed in its cooked form it is important to know the activity of the sulphur compounds of cooked garlic. Other studies have already shown that heating reduces the antioxidant, antibacterial and vascular protective activity. The aim of this study is to determine the heat stability of the anticancer phytochemicals in garlic by heating the garlic in a microwave or oven.The researchers found that heating the garlic during 1 min in the microwave or 45 min in the oven resulted in complete loss of anticancer activity. Strange enough, some of the anticancer activity was retained when the crushed garlic was allowed to stand for 10 minutes before the heat treatment. The heating resulted in the destruction of the alliinase enzyme, which is responsible for the production of the active allyl sulphur compounds. During the crushing of garlic the alliinase enzyme converts the alliin of fresh garlic into allicin,which is further transformed into diallyl sulphide, allyl sulphide and other larger sulphur compounds. Allowing alliinase to work for 10 min after crushing the garlic allows enough allyl compounds to be formed, resulting in some biological activity.Source: Song K and Milner JA. The influence of heating on the anticancer properties of garlic.. Journal of Nutrition. 2001 March;131(3s):1054S-7S

For scientific studies about garlic  quoted in this article see last page of studies database-click here.

Also see  Cancer, Interrupted: Garlic & Flavonoids – YouTube

Best of Health!

Cristian

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Garlic (lat: Allium sativum / ro: Usturoi )

CLICK AICI pentru  limba ROmana(traducerea „aproximativa” utilizand google translate).

Scriu articolele in engleza in ultima vreme  de cand incerc as fac siteul disponibil in limba engleza ,la fel cum am facut si cartea disponibila in limba engleza,  odata cu colaborarile incepute cu publicatiile internationale precum NaturalNews(click aici) si cu prestigioasele centre de cercetare si tratare alternativa a cancerului din lume (click aici) ; centre precum institutul Gerson (click aici) , clinica Issels (click aici), clinica Hope4Cancer (click aici), Fundatia Independenta de Cercetare a Cancerului ICRF Inc (click aici) cancertutor si altele. Revin cu mai multe detalii despre centrele cu care acest site este oficial partener (le sprijina oficial si este sprinjinit  reciproc oficial ).
Sper totusi ca traducerea in romana oferita de google sa fie pe intelesul dvs pina gasesc o solutie mai buna sau timp si resurse sa traduc. Daca sunt probleme va rog sa imi spuneti.
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English: A basket of garlic (allium sativum) o...

English: A basket of garlic (allium sativum) offered for sale at the farmers’ market in Rochester, Minnesota (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In a review of the research on garlic by Judith Dausch and Daniel Nixon in a 1990 issue of  Preventive Medicine, they note that there have been hundreds of animal and human studies since the 1930s on the potential benefits of garlic or its active ingredients. Since the 1970s, most research has focused on its antibacterial activity, lipid-lowering effects, antiplatelet aggregation effects, drug metabolizing properties and its anti-carcinogenic actions.They conclude that „evidence suggests a potential role for garlic or its components in several areas including prevention or control of cardiovascular disorders, treatment of viral and fungal conditions and prevention and treatment ofcertain cancers.”(1075).
As of September 1996, the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) had identified 250 citations in the medical literature for garlic, of which 171 pertained to cancer. Of the 89 studies they reviewed, ten were carried out with human subjects, 61 were animal studies and ten were in vitro studies. All of the human studies the OAM evaluated were studies of
garlic as preventive for cancer and showed mixed results, with Chinese studies generally showing positive results for the cancers examined and Western studies showing no association.

It was first believed by researchers that the single beneficial element in garlic was allicin, the  compound formed when the bulb is crushed. Allicin is an unstable compound that is strongly antibacterial and mainly responsible for garlic’s characteristic odor.

In vitro studies show that allicin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells. The phytochemical also exhibits antigenotoxic action. But the anticancer effect of allicin in humans remains uncertain, because of its low stability and poor bioavailability.

A study conducted at the Nanjing Medical University, China, concluded that allicininhibited the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells in vitro at non-cytotoxic concentration through down-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), urokinase receptor (uPAR) and heparanase mRNA [1]. The researchers tested the effect of allicin on invasion and metastasis of human colon cancer cell line LoVo in vitro by using migratory test, adhesion test and Transwell chamber experiment. Allicin showed an inhibitive effects on growth of the cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The phytochemicals suppressed the movement, adhesion and invasive capability of carcinoma cells.

A study by the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, demonstrated the antiproliferative function of allicin on two leukemia cell lines (HL60 and U937) [2]. They found that allicin showed anticancer effect by inducing growth inhibition, apoptotic events such as blebbing, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. Allicin reduced glutathione in the cytosol and mitochondria and changed the intracellular redox status.

Siddique and Afzal of the Aligarh Muslim University, India, investigated the antigenotoxic potential of allicin in cultured human lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges induced by the genotoxic methyl methanesulphonate [3]. They found that allicin treatment reduced the damage caused by the genotoxin, as illustrated by lower levels of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges.

[1] Effects of allicin on invasion and metastasis of colon cancer LoVo cell line in vitro. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009 May 26;89(20):1382-6.
[2] Allicin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in HL60 and U937 cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Aug;19(8):524-35.
[3] Antigenotoxic effect of allicin against methyl methanesulphonate induced genotoxic damage. J Environ Biol. 2005 Jul;26(3):547-50. 

But in addition to allicin, researchers have discovered 32 other sulfur compounds in garlic, along with 17 amino acids,
Germanium, Calcium, Selenium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Zinc, and small amounts of vitamins A, B1 and C. The main active components in garlic seem to be the various sulfur compounds, including Allicin, Allixin, diallyl Disulfide, diallyl Trisulfide and thioallyl amino acids, as well as other compounds formed during cooking and food preparation.(1075)
Dausch and Nixon report that, with regards to cancer research, the majority of human studies have been epidemiological in nature. Others have been in vitro or animals studies of the possible role of garlic in the prevention of cancer. According to Dausch and Nixon:
One possible beneficial effect of garlic or its components may be their ability to enhance the body’s mechanism for eliminating exogenous substances including carcinogens. In some studies garlic has been shown to have a stimulating effect on certain enzymes that are known to be involved in  removing toxic substances. Antihepatotoxic [liver detoxifying] activity of garlic sulfur components have been described in vitro and vivo (1074).

This capacity to enhance liver detoxification could potentially be of great interest to cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, since the it is the liver that functions to eliminate the toxic chemotherapy from the body.
Li and colleagues at the Strang-Cornell Cancer Research Laboratory describe the research on garlic in a 1995 article in Oncology Reports:
…Based on experimental and epidemiological evidences garlic could be classified as an anticarcinogen.
The specific phase(s) of the carcinogenic process, i.e., initiation, promotion, or progression at which garlic or its constituents may exert its biological effect, however, remains to be determined in many cases…
Sources and mode of extraction of specific constituents from garlic showed an inhibitory effect on the production of DNA adducts initiated by chemical carcinogens on mammary cell DNA.
Postulates to explain the anti-carcinogenic effect of garlic constituents have been proposed and these range from bio-inactivation of carcinogens, induction of free radical scavenging mechanisms, enhanced detoxification involving the glutathione pathway, and more recently, it has been suggested the cancer cells may be growth arrested in the G1-G0 phase of the cell cycle…(1078)
Describing their 1991 research on one of the active components of garlic, Maurya and Singh conclude:
Diallyl sulfide [DAS], an organosulfur compound identified as the flavor component in garlic, has been shown to inhibit chemically-induced neoplasia of forestomach and lung in mice. Even though the exact mechanism(s) of anti-neoplastic activity of DAS is not known, several independent studies suggest that this effect may, at least in part, be due to the elevation of glutathione-S-transferase [detoxification] activity (1079).

Although most research with garlic and cancer has focused on prevention, intriguing evidence exists concerning the potential for garlic as an adjunct to therapy for existing cancers. According to Boik,
„theoretically, garlic may inhibit cancer by a variety of mechanisms, including reduced angiogenesis, reduced platelet aggregation, and increased fibrinolysis (discussed below)” (1180).
Dutch researchers found that compounds in garlic inhibit endothelial umbilical cell proliferation in vivo, an indication that they might also inhibit tumor angiogenic activity, which also involves the rapid proliferation of endothelial cells.
The antiangiogenic effect of thiols, compounds found in garlic, may be related to their ability to inhibit free-radical production by macrophages. Macrophages are found in great numbers in solid tumors, and can comprise 10 to 30 percent of the cells in a tumor. Under the low-oxygen conditions found in the interiors of solid tumors, macrophages secrete large amounts of angiogenesis factors, perhaps because of the stimuli are similar to those found in situations where wound healing is
required (1182).

According to Koch:
We showed previously that thiol-containing compounds inhibited the production of macrophagemediated angiogenic activity. Since thiol containing compounds may act on macrophages by affecting activation and inhibiting the production of oxygen free-radicals, we studied the effects of oxygen free-radical scavengers on production of angiogenic activity…We conclude that oxygen free-radical scavengers are potent inhibitors of the production of macrophage-mediated angiogenic
activity (1083).
Compounds found in garlic might also influence angiogenesis through their effects on the process of fibrinolysis, or the breaking down of fibrin. Fibrin is the protein material that comprises the essential portion of blood clots and is formed as a result of the process of inflammation. The area around tumors is commonly inflamed and a provisional stroma, or support structure, composed of fibrin forms around the tumor. According to Boik, the formation of this fibrin stroma may be the
most important single precondition for tumor angiogenesis to occur. Boik cites research showing that the removal of this fibrin through the process of fibrinolysis terminates angiogenesis. He also speculates that by increasing fibrinolysis, the periphery of the tumor may be exposed to greater immune attack (1084).
A number of human studies have been carried out on the fibrinolytic properties of garlic that might have a bearing on some forms of cardiovascular disease. Some of these studies also indicate potential benefit to people with cancer.

Italian researcher Legnani and colleagues found the following responses to garlic ingestion (900 mg daily of dried powder) in a study of 12 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation:
Total euglobulin fibrinolytic activity…[was] significantly higher 4 and 6 hours after garlic…ingestion, and no differences were recorded between treatments. After 14 days of treatment, t-PA [tissue plasminogen activator, the principle mediator of fibrinolysis] activity was significantly higher after garlic…Platelet aggregation…was significantly inhibited 2 and 4 hours after garlic ingestion; platelet aggregation values were also significantly lower after 7 and 14 days of garlic
treatment (1085).

Arora also assessed the fibrinolysis-enhancing properties of garlic in patients with ischemic heart disease and in healthy control subjects. Though blood fibrinolytic activity was enhanced, the peak activity occurred at the 4th week of garlic therapy but was not sustained despite its continuous use and returned to about the pre-garlic values at the 12th week. Garlic withdrawal did not cause any further change in blood fibrinolytic activity (1086).

Another study in humans, this one a placebo-controlled double-blind study by Kiesewetter and colleagues, demonstrated a significant decrease in thrombocyte aggregation through the administration of 800 mg of garlic daily powder over a period of four weeks. Plasma viscosity was also shown to decrease (1087). Both effects lessen the likelihood of tumor cell arrest at potential metastatic sites.
Feng and resveracolleagues found that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) at high levels had an inhibitory effect on T cell activation, but at appropriate concentrations augmented the activation of T lymphocytes, immune cells that might play a role in the immune response to cancer. In addition:
DATS can antagonize the inhibition of tumor-derived immunosuppressive factors produced by S180 cells and Ehrlich ascitic cancer cells on the activation of T cells, and reduce the inhibitory rate significantly…When macrophages were pretreated with DATS for 24 hours, the cytotoxicity of macrophages to three tumor cell lines was significantly higher than that in corresponding control group…These results indicate that DATS can augment the activation of T cells and enhance the antitumor function of macrophages, suggesting that DATS may be potentially useful in tumor therapy
(1088).
Evidence also exists of a direct anticancer effect with garlic.

An in vitro study by Xie examined the effect of garlic oil on the DNA content of the cancer cell cycle using flow cytometric analysis:
This technique may measure DNA content of 5000 cells per second and traces the dynamic changes  in the cell proliferation cycle and offers a hint for designing clinical treatment protocol, monitor prognosis and elucidate the mechanisms of antitumor drugs. The authors’ previous studies showed significant effect of garlic oil on prolongation of life expectancy and inhibition of tumor growth in mice. Using FCM [flow cytometric analysis] the authors analyzed the effect of garlic oil on cell
cycle in S180 tumor cells, 2-6 hours after single administration or multiple administration. The number of cells in S phase rapidly decreased, in G1 phase increased. This suggests garlic oil may blockade cells…progress from G1 phase to S phase and result in accumulation of cells in G1 phase and directly inhibit the synthesis of DNA and the cell cycle (1089).

A second study by Xie and colleagues on the effect of Kang ai-bao II on cancer cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy found that this garlic preparation had a destructive effect on DNA and RNA of cancer cells (1090).
Dausch and Nixon describe a 1985 Chinese study by Xiyu that compared the cytoxic effects of fresh garlic, diallyl trisulfide, 5-FU, mitomycin and cis-DDP on human gastric cancer cells in vitro.
Mitomycin exerted the strongest effect, but fresh garlic also had a marked killing effect. Diallyl trisulfide was stronger than 5-FU against this gastric cell line (1091).
Li and colleagues also demonstrated an antiproliferative effect with aged garlic (AGE) and two of its allyl constituents in a human breast carcinoma model. They determined that „aged garlic extract  demonstrated substantial inhibitory effect on the cancer cell lines; these AGE treated cells had substantially lowered growth rate than that of the cells treated with each compound alone”(1092).
In a 1993 study published in Oncology, Hiromitsu Takeyama and colleagues examined the effect of an amino acid compound derived from garlic, S allyl cysteine, or SAC on nine human melanoma cell line in vitro. They found that growth was inhibited in all melanoma cell lines, while it was not inhibited in three lymphoblastoid cell lines. The researchers also found that morphological changes were induced in the melanoma cells by SAC and that the cells appeared more differentiated and
possibly had reverted to a less malignant state (1093).
In another study examining the effect of garlic constituents on a melanoma cell line in culture, David Hoon and colleagues at the UCLA Medical Center found that an extract of aged garlic significantly inhibited the growth a the melanoma cells and „appeared to be a more potent or an equivalent inducer of differentiation of melanoma compared to some known cytokines and agents…The modulatory effect on cell growth and differentiation by [garlic extract] may have potential benefit for prevention and control of melanoma progression in humans (1094).
Similarly, in a 1993 study using canine mammary tumor cells in vitro, Sundaram and Milner found that three water soluble constituents of garlic did not significantly inhibit cell growth, while two oilsoluble compounds, diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide, did significantly inhibit growth and a third, diallyl trisulfide, resulted in cell death (1095).

Dausch and Nixon also summarize numerous in vivo studies with mice demonstrating immunomodulatory and anticancer effects:

* In a 1964 study, Kimura and Yamamoto described the effects of garlic extracts on a transplanted ascites sarcoma in rats. When injected interperitoneally, the extract inhibited tumor cell proliferation by producing irregularities in chromosomes during cell division (1096);
* In a 1967 study, Fujiwara and Natata found that when mice were injected twice at a seven-day interval with a suspension of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells pretreated with garlic extract, they developed a strong immunity to the same type of tumor cells. They attributed this acquired immunity to the interaction of allicin with tumor cell proteins (1097).
* In a 1973 study, Nakata treated a variety of tumor cell types in mice with fresh garlic extract. Tumor development was found to be reversed in mice injected with Ehrlich ascites tumor and Yoshida sarcoma cells that were preincubated with garlic solution (1098)
* In a 1981 study, Cheng and Tung tested numerous compounds in Sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing mice and found that multiple intratumoral injections of allicin or allithiamine resulted in significant tumor inhibition (1099);
* In a 1981 study, Dhillon found a substance purified from garlic effective in inhibiting the growth of two Morris hepatomas in rats (1100);
* In a 1982 study, Criss compared the effectiveness in inhibiting Morris hepatoma 3924A in rats by dietary administration versus subcutaneous injection of garlic extract. Subcutaneous injection lowered tumor growth by 30-50 percent compared to 10 to 25 percent by dietary administration (1101) ;
* In a 1983 study, Choy found a 42 to 59 percent inhibitory effect by the oral administration of a garlic suspension on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumors in the peritoneal cavities of tumorinoculated mice. Survival time was increased significantly by the administration of garlic (1102);
* In a 1986 study, Lau and Marsh studied the immunotherapy effects of garlic extract and other agents on transplanted transitional cell carcinoma in mice. Intralesional administration was found to be much more effective in inhibiting growth than the intraperitoneal route. Also, five intralesional treatments of garlic extract to the bladders of mice with transplanted transitional cell carcinoma resulted in inhibition of tumor growth as well as the production of macrophages and
lymphocytes, leading to the destruction of tumor cells. It was theorized the result was due to enhanced production of lymphokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, that could result in increased natural killer cell activity (1103).
In a follow-up study, Marsh confirmed that garlic administered intravesically (into the bladder) was a more effective immunotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma than was BCG: Intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Corynebacterium parvum (CP), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and an extract of Allium sativum (AS) was studied in mice transplanted intravesically with mouse bladder tumor cells (MBT-2)…Immunotherapy with BCG (2 X 10(6) CFU), CP (250 micrograms), KLH (50 micrograms), or AS (25 mg) was administered directly into the bladder via urethral catheter on day 1, day 6, or days 1 and 6. On day 21 the bladders and spleens were excised and weighed, and the bladders were examined macroscopically and microscopically for evidence of tumor. The results of the study showed that two treatments given one and six days after tumor transplant yielded the lowest tumor incidence and that CP and AS appeared equally effective or even slightly more effective than BCG in this model. These results suggest that clinical evaluation of CP or AS may be worthwhile (1104).
The efficacy of garlic with bladder cancer in vivo was also evaluated by Donald Lamm at West Virginia University using an extract of aged garlic. The researchers ranomized 72 mice into six groups and inoculated each with a transitional cell carcinoma line:
Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in the groups which received AGE [aged garlic extract]…relative to Saline controls. All doses of AGE significantly reduced tumor volume when compared to the Saline control. There was no statistical difference between the group receiving…garlic extract and the BCG control group. The highly beneficial reduction in tumor growth with AGE immunotherapy suggests that AGE will prove to be a highly effective form of immunotherapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (1105).

In an Indian study, Unnikrishnan and Kuttan examined the antitumor activity of extracts of eight commonly used spices in India in mice transplanted intraperitoneally with Ehrlich ascites tumor:
Oral administration of extracts of black pepper, asafoetida, pippali and garlic could increase the percentage of life span in these mice by 64.7%, 52.9%, 47% and 41.1%, respectively…Garlic extract and asafoetida extracts also inhibited two stage chemical carcinogenesis induced by 7,12 dimethyl benzanthracene and croton oil on mice skin with significant reduction in papilloma formation. These results indicate the potential use of spices as anti-cancer agents as well as antitumor
promoters (1106).
Several studies indicate that garlic enhance the effectiveness of some chemotherapies or inhibit the mutagenic effect of chemotherapeutic drugs on normal cells. Pan and colleagues in 1988 examined the cytotoxic effects of allyl trisulfide when combined with three chemotherapeutic agents on a moderately differentiated human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line:
The inhibitory effects of [allyl trisulfide], MMC [mitomycin] alone or combined on MGC [human gastric adenocarcinoma] tumor in nude mice were observed…The in vitro test of combinations of two drugs showed that [allyl trisulfide] plus MMC or 5 FU plus DDP had markedly synergistic effect on MGC cells…The inhibition test on the growth of MGC tumor in nude mice indicated that the inhibition rates of [allyl trisulfide], MMC alone or combined were 58.3%, 86.3% and 84.3%.
The systemic toxic effect of MMC alone was severe, whereas [allyl trisulfide] alone or MMC plus [allyl trisulfide] showed mild toxicity. For this reason, [allyl trisulfide] plus MMC is recommended for clinical trials on poorly differentiated gastric cancer (1107).
Using a thioallyl derived from garlic, Yellin and his colleagues examined the relationship between glutathione metabolism and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. They used a battery of cell lines derived from previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas:
An inverse relationship between GSH [glutathione] levels and cisplatin sensitivity was identified…Cells were treated with S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a thioallyl derivative isolated from garlic (Allium sativum)…Pretreatment with SAC to lower cellular glutathione levels followed by exposure to cisplatin significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, while SAC alone had no effect on cell growth (1108).
In this study, while the garlic derivative used demonstrated no anticancer activity itself, it did enhance the effects of cisplatin. Another intriguing implication of this study was that the presence of the antioxidant glutathione in some way inhibited the sensitivity to cisplatin, evidence that antioxidant supplementation might not be useful for patients using some chemotherapies.
In another study indicating garlic’s potential usefulness as an adjunct to chemotherapies, Chinese researchers Zhao and Huang screened vegetables for possible inhibition of mutagenicity caused by antineoplastic drugs:
We found that 7 out of 11 kinds of commonly eaten vegetables had the ability to inhibit mutagenicity caused by chemical drugs such as Mitomycin C, Bleomycinia, Fluorouracil, Cis- Diaminodichloroplatinum, Arabinosylcytosin and mustargen. They were garlic, green Chinese onion, onion, garlic bulb, tomato, cucumber and water radish…We believe that our results can be
helpful in the preparation of cancer patients’ diet, who are receiving chemotherapy and in the prevention of cancer (1109).

Dausch and Nixon cite several studies that examine the mutagenic potential of garlic. Substances that are mutagenic promote mutations, or permanent changes in the DNA in the body’s cells. Some mutations can potentially lead to cancer. Garlic has been reported to be mutagenic in several species of bacteria, but two studies with mice demonstrated no mutagenic effects. In fact, another study with mice cited by Dausch and Nixon showed that diallyl sulfide was among the most effective agents in inhibiting chemically-induced nuclear aberrations.
However, a more recent study by M. Takada published in the Japanese Journal of Cancer Research shows a possible cancer-promoting effect by some organosulfur compounds found in garlic and onions:
Four organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions were examined for modifying effects…on neoplasia of the liver in male F344 rats…Isothiocyanic acid isobutyl ester (IAIE), dipropyl trisulfide (DPT), and allyl mercapton (AM) exerted enhancing effects on their development, while dimethyl trisulfide also tended to increase them…These results suggest that IAIE, DPT, and AM promote rat hepatocarcinogenesis and their promoting effect might be caused by increased cell proliferation
with increased polyamine biosynthesis. In evaluating relationships between diet and cancer, it is thus appropriate to consider not only a possible protective role of garlic and onions, but also enhancing effects (1110).
The research with garlic seems to indicate it may have promise as an adjunctive therapy for cancer because of direct anticancer effect, immune stimulation and also possible inhibition of metastases. However, research is unclear on how a patient might best use garlic.
Garlic researcher Robert Lin, Ph.D. advises consumers to beware that manufacturers wishing to give the impression that allicin is the main active component in garlic may fortify their products with this readily made compound. According to Lin:
Allicin is a transient and highly unstable compound which is produced when garlic’s cellular
structures are ruptured due to cutting and crushing…Once allicin is formed, it decomposes rapidly and is mostly lost within one day. Since allicin has a germicidal power when added to cultured  micro-organisms, some garlic products have been promoted as drugs for treating infectious diseases. The truth is that almost all cooked garlic and garlic products (including so-called garlic supplements) contain insignificant amounts of allicin. Further, there is no compelling evidence showing that allicin is the active compound in the body (1111).
Sundaram and Milner concluded in their study which showed diallyl disulfide inhibited proliferation of canine mammary tumor cells:
Essential oils of garlic are known to contain approximately 60% DADS …It is impossible at this point to extrapolate the quantity of garlic or its oil that would need to be consumed by human beings to potentially reduce the growth of neoplastic tissue. Nevertheless, intakes of 20 grams per day have been reported in some areas of the world. This intake has been correlated with a reduction in the incidence of stomach cancers (1112).

And Legnani found significant effects on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation the following responses to garlic ingestion in humans at a level of 900 mg daily of dried powder and Kiesewetter found a clinical effect in humans at a level of 800 mg per day.
Studies have also employed various garlic derivatives, both oil soluble and water soluble, and, in animal studies, used both oral administration and injection. These studies seem to indicate that injection is a more effective route of administration, though at least three studies did show life extension in animals given garlic orally. Further, studies by Marsh and Lamm seem to indicate that garlic extracts given intravesically in mice may be significantly more useful as an immunotherapy
for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder than BCG, while the studies by Takeyama and Hoon indicate the potential for garlic to inhibit the growth of melanoma.

A caveat for cancer patients interested in the use of garlic as an adjunct to therapy is research by Pruthi showing that, due to the instability of numerous sulfur compounds, the application of heat above 60 degrees centigrade can cause not only the pungency, but possibly also the medicinal properties of garlic to be lost (1113). However, a cold-aged extract from Japanese whole-clove garlic has been developed that allows for the conversion of some of the active components to be converted
in less irritating compounds which also have less odor (1114).
Richard Grossman, a New York-based authority on herbal medicine, recommends Kyolic brand garlic for patients interested in an aged garlic product which is less pungent than fresh whole garlic.

Garlic contains many phytochemicals with therapeutic effects, including antibacterial, antifungal, hypolipidemic, hypoglycaemic, hypoglycaemic, antithrombotic, antioxidant and anticancer. In vitro studies and epidemiological studies have suggested that garlic has anticancer properties. Garlic contains both water soluble and oil soluble sulphur compounds with anticancer activity. Because garlic is mostly consumed in its cooked form it is important to know the activity of the sulphur compounds of cooked garlic. Other studies have already shown that heating reduces the antioxidant, antibacterial and vascular protective activity. The aim of this study is to determine the heat stability of the anticancer phytochemicals in garlic by heating the garlic in a microwave or oven.The researchers found that heating the garlic during 1 min in the microwave or 45 min in the oven resulted in complete loss of anticancer activity. Strange enough, some of the anticancer activity was retained when the crushed garlic was allowed to stand for 10 minutes before the heat treatment. The heating resulted in the destruction of the alliinase enzyme, which is responsible for the production of the active allyl sulphur compounds. During the crushing of garlic the alliinase enzyme converts the alliin of fresh garlic into allicin,which is further transformed into diallyl sulphide, allyl sulphide and other larger sulphur compounds. Allowing alliinase to work for 10 min after crushing the garlic allows enough allyl compounds to be formed, resulting in some biological activity.Source: Song K and Milner JA. The influence of heating on the anticancer properties of garlic.. Journal of Nutrition. 2001 March;131(3s):1054S-7S

For scientific studies about garlic  quoted in this article see last page of studies database-click here.

Also see  Cancer, Interrupted: Garlic & Flavonoids – YouTube

Best of Health!

Cristian

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Scientific Studies DATABASE PAGE 6

CLICK AICI pentru  limba ROmana (traducerea „aproximativa”  utilizand google translate)

Hydroxycinnamic Acids

Dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid

Chicoric acid is a caffeic acid derivative, belonging to the group of polypfenols.
science.naturalnews.com/C/Caffeic_Acid_and_cancer.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Caffeic_Acid_and_Anticarcinogenic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Caffeic_Acid_and_Chemotherapeutic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Caffeic_Acid_and_Anti-Angiogenic.html

Chicoric acid is the most active compound in Echinacea pupurea. Chicoric acid is very stable in dry conditions but can be broken down by enzymes, which are found in the Echinacea, in moist conditions.

  • DistributionChicoric is only found in Echinacea purpurea.Health Benefits of Chicoric acidChicoric acid makes our immune cells more efficient in attacking intruders. In vivo en vitro studies have shown that chicoric acid promotes phagocytosis. This is the process whereby white blood cells and lymphocytes attack and destroy pathogens. Chicoric acid stimulates T-cell activation, stimulates healing of wounds and reduces the inflammation in arthritis. Chicoric acid increases the production of interferon, immunoglobulin and other chemicals important for the immune system.Studies have indicated that chicoric acid can inhibit the penetration of viruses in cells.Chicoric acid also acts as an antioxidant by preventing the oxidation of collagen and cells.

1,2-Benzopyrone, 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one

Coumarin is a phytochemical with a vanilla like flavour. Coumarin is a oxygen heterocycle. Coumarin can occur either free or combined with the sugar glucose (coumarin glycoside).

Distribution

Coumarin is found in several plants, including tonka beans, lavender, licorice, strawberries, apricots, cherries, cinnamon, and sweet clover. 

Health Benefits of Coumarin

Coumarin has blood-thinning, anti-fungicidal and anti-tumor activities.

science.naturalnews.com/C/Coumarin_and_cancer.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Coumarin_and_Antimitotic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Coumarin_and_Antiproliferative.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Coumarin_and_Apoptotic.html

Coumarin should not be taken while using anticoagulants. Coumarin increases the blood flow in the veins and decreases capillary permeability. Coumarin can be toxic when used at high doses for a long period

Facts about Coumarin

Coumarin seems to work as a pesticide in the plants that produce it. Coumarin is responsible for the sweet smell of new mown hay.

 

4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid

Pure ferulic acid is a yellowish powder. Ferulic acid belong to the family of hydroxycinnamic acid. The chemical structure of ferulic acid is very similar to that of curcumin.

The phytochemical ferulic acid is found in the leaves and seeds of many plants, but especially in cereals such as brown rice, whole wheat and oats. Ferulic acid is also present in coffee, apple, artichoke, peanut, orange and pineapple.

Health Benefits of Ferulic acid

Ferulic acid is an antioxidant which neutralizes free radicals (superoxide, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical) which could cause oxidative damage of cell membranes and DNA. Ferulic acid helps to prevent damage to our cells caused by ultraviolet light. Exposure to ultraviolet light actually increases the antioxidant potency of ferulic acid.

science.naturalnews.com/…/88169_Protective_effects_of_a_topical_ antioxidant_mixture_containing_vitamin_C.html
 ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet induced photodamage in human skin. and chronic reactions, including premature skin aging and skin cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/…/2559062_Protective_effect_of_ferulic_acid_on_ nicotine_induced_DNA_damage.html
Protective effect of ferulic acid on nicotine induced DNA damage and cellular  smoke and plays an important etiological role in the development of lung cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/F/Ferulic_acid_and_Inflammatory.html
FA15, a hydrophobic derivative of ferulic acid, suppresses Inflammatory responses and skin tumor promotion: comparison with ferulic acid. 2002 Cancer letters
science.naturalnews.com/…/875229_Ferulic_acid_augments_angiogenesis_ via_VEGF_PDGF_and_HIF_1.html
Ferulic acid augments angiogenesis via VEGF, PDGF and HIF 1 alpha.  broad range of therapeutic effects on human diseases, including diabetes and cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1973049_Actions_of_ferulic_acid_and_vitamin_ E_on_prevention_of.html
Actions of ferulic acid and vitamin E on prevention of hypercholesterolemia and atherogenic lesion  Vitamin D is nutritional key for prevention of breast cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/…/2144597_Protective_effect_of_ferulic_acid_on_ 712_dimethylbenzaanthracene_induced_skin.html
Protective effect of ferulic acid on 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss  List of Cancer-Causing Agents Grows (press release).

Ferulic acid is often added as ingredient of anti-aging supplements. Studies have shown that ferulic acid can decrease blood glucose levels and can be of help to diabetes patients.Ferulic acid seems to protect against cancer, bone degeneration, menopausal symptoms (hot flushes). Like many other antioxidants, ferulic acid reduces the level of cholesterol and triglyceride, thereby reducing the risk of hearth disease. Ferulic acid seems to reduce the risk of many cancers, including cancer of the stomach, colon, breast, prostate, liver, lung and tongue. A study by W Kuenzig et all Caffeic and ferulic acid as blockers of nitrosamine formation published in Carcinogenesis (Vol 5, 1984) showed that dietary caffeic acid and ferulic acid may play a role in the body’s defence against carcinogenesis by inhibiting the formation of N- nitroso compounds.

Ferulic acid can be converted into the flavour vanillin by biochemical reaction.

Isoprenoides :

Abscisic acid, Acorenone, Alloaromadendrene, Aromadendrene, Bergamotene, Bisabolene,Borneol, Bornyl acetate, Isoborneol, Cadinene, Camphene, Caranol, Carene, Carvacrol, Carvone,Pinocarvone, Caryophyllene, Cedrine, Cineole, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamate, Citral,Cinnamaldehyde, Cyclocitral, Citronella, Citronellyl acetate or butyrate or propionate, Copaene, Cresol, Cubebene, Cymene, Damascenone,Elemene, Estragol, Eugenol, Farnesene, Fencone, Geraniol, Germacrene, Hotrienol, Humulene, Ionol, Ionone, Isopinocamphone, Isopulegol, Linalool, Longifolene, Mentol, Neomenthol, Menthone, Isomenthone, Murolene, Myrcenol, Myrcene, Myrtenol, Neral, Nerol, Nerolidol, Nootkatone, Ocimene, Ocimenol, Perillaldehyde, Phellandrene, Pinene, Pinocamphone, Piperitol,Piperitone, Pristane, Pulegone, Sabinene, Sabinol, Santalol, Selinadiene, Selinene, Sinensal, Styrene, Terpinene, Terpineol, Terpinolene, Thymol, Tricyclene, Vanillin, Valencene, Verbenone, Vitispirane, etc.

  • Cinnamaldehyde

Sources:Cinnamon

science.naturalnews.com/…/188629_Allyl_isothiocyanates_and_ cinnamaldehyde_potentiate_miniature_excitatory_postsynaptic_inp…
 Cancer Pathophysiology Division, National Cancer Center Reseach Institute,  Allyl Isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde are pungent compounds 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1769088_Growth_inhibition_of_human_colon_ cancer_cells_by_plant_compounds.html
CONCLUSION : Cinnamaldehyde, piperine, and resveratrol offer significant in vitro anti-proliferative effects on cultured human colon cancer cells. While each 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1499711_Coumarin_and_cinnamaldehyde_in_ cinnamon_marketed_in_Italy_a_natural.html
Coumarin and cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon marketed in Italy: a natural  The Cure in the Kitchen: Honey and Cinnamon can Cure Cancer and Arthritis.

  • Elemene

Sources: (Curcuma zedoaria and another plants)

A significant effect on the treatment of glioma was reported using Elemene which is found in small

amounts in many essential oils: it prolonged quality survival time of 40 patients with glioma (1574)

(Tan P.: Clinical study on treatment of 40 cases of malignant brain tumor by Elemene emulsion injection, Chin. J.

Integ. Trad. Western Med, 20, pp.: 645-648, 2000) http://www.mednat.org/cancro/cancro_cervello.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of elemene emulsion injection (EEI) in treating malignant brain tumor.

METHODS: By conducting a retrospective study of 40 patients with brain tumor, 29 of malignant glioma and 11 metastatic tumor, who were treated with EEI from January 1994 to May 1998. EEI 0.4-1.2 g/d was given to each patient by intravenous dripping or/and intravenous infusion by pumps, and directly injected into carotid artery or infused through a carotid artery catheter with pumps. The total dosage of 6-12 g was given in 2-6 therapeutic courses with an interval of 1-1.5 months between courses. The effectiveness of treatment was accessed according to the changes of tumor size, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and survival time of patients. The control group consisted of 29 cases of malignant brain tumor (22 of primary and 7 of metastatic) was treated with chemotherapy 2-3 therapeutic courses with an interval of 1-1.5 months between them.

RESULTS:

(1) In the EEI treated group the mean tumor size was changed from 6.70 cm3 (before treatment) to 2.67 cm3 (after treatment), t = 3.02, P < 0.01, it was reduced by 61%;

(2) In the EEI treated group 4 cases was CR, 26 PR, the total effective rate being 75.0% (95% credibility interval +/- 13.4%), while in the control group, 2 of CR, 10 PR, and the total effective rate 41.4% (95% credibility interval +/- 17.9%), the difference between the two groups was significant, chi 2 = 3.867, P < 0.05;

(3) KPS decreased in the EEI group from 94.7 scores (before treatment) to 88.2 scores (after treatment), the decrement was 6.5 scores (t = 3.5313, P < 0.01); (4) The survival time in the EEI treated group was 25.4 months, and that in the control group was 17.4 months (t = 3.74, P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Elemene has significant effect on treatment of malignant brain tumor. It could prolong the high quality survival time of patients and is worthy of further investigation.

Elemene , induced apoptosis in leukaemia (1409).

http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/elemene_zedoaria_provoca_apoptosi_nella_leucemia.pdf

  • Eugenol

science.naturalnews.com/E/Eugenol_and_cancer.html
science.naturalnews.com/E/Eugenol_and_Apoptotic.html
2007 Molecular cancer. Pro-apoptotic effect of the landrace Bangla Mahoba of Piper betle on Leishmania donovani may be due to the high content of eugenol.
  • Limonene(see below)

Lecithins :

science.naturalnews.com/L/Lecithin_and_cancer.html
science.naturalnews.com/…/2237506_Oral_carcinogenesis_induced_by_4_ nitroquinoline_1_oxide_in_lecithinretinol.html
Oral carcinogenesis induced by 4 nitroquinoline 1 oxide in lecithin:retinol  induced a higher incidence of oral cancer in LRAT knockout (LRAT(-/-)) than in 

Lignans

  1. How lignans fight cancer? – NutraPro Internationalnutraprointl.com/2009/12/25/how-lignans-fight-cancer/‎ Lignans are being studied for possible use in cancer prevention, particularly breast cancerLignans acts as anticancer compounds by blocking 
  2. Breast Cancer Survival and Lignan Intake | NutritionFacts.org

    nutritionfacts.org › Videos

    One teaspoon of flax seeds may double one’s daily production of lignans, phytonutrients that appear to play a role in both breast cancer prevention and survival.

  3. Lignans – Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State Universitylpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/lignans/Lignan-rich foods are part of a healthful dietary pattern, but the role of lignans in the prevention of hormone-associated cancers, osteoporosis 
  4. PUBMED Dietary lignans: potential role in cancer prevention.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15860433‎Dietary lignans: potential role in cancer prevention. Webb AL, McCullough ML. Graduate Program in Nutrition and Health 
  5. Dietary intakes of total and specific lignans are associated with http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113872‎ – Dietary lignans may affect breast cancer by modifying tumor characteristics likely to affect prognosis. We investigated usual dietary intakes of 
  6. Fighting breast cancer with flaxseeds : Disease Proofhttp://www.diseaseproof.com › Breast Cancer‎- Anti-cancer effects of lignans. Enterolignans are structurally similar to estrogen and can bind to estrogen receptors – this capability allows 
  7. Higher lignan levels improve breast cancer survival – Life Extension http://www.lef.org/…/0920_Higher-Lignan-Levels-Improve-Breast-Cancer-Sur…‎ In an article published online on September 6, 2011 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, German researchers report that having high serum 
  8. Dietary Lignan Intake and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk by 

    jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/99/6/475‎ Studies conducted in Asian populations have suggested that high consumption of soy-based foods that are rich in isoflavone phytoestrogens is 

science.naturalnews.com/…/2632135_Estrogenic_activities_of_sesame_ lignans_and_their_metabolites_on_human.html
Estrogenic activities of sesame lignans and their metabolites on human breast cancercells. Publication: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Publication 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2602942_Cytostatic_inhibition_of_cancer_cell_ growth_by_lignan_secoisolariciresinol_diglucoside.html
Cytostatic inhibition of cancer cell growth by lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1558789_Spirocyclic_Lignans_from_Guaiacum_ Zygophyllaceae_Induce_Apoptosis_in_Human_Breast.html
Spirocyclic Lignans from Guaiacum (Zygophyllaceae) Induce Apoptosis in Human BreastCancer Cell Lines. Publication: Journal of natural products. Publication 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1311157_Extraction_of_lignans_from_flaxseed_ and_evaluation_of_their_biological.html
Our results show that lignans modulate development of breast cancer cells. The most intense effect was observed for anhydrosecoisolariciresinol, which 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1478913_Vitexins_nature_derived_lignan_ compounds_induce_apoptosis_and_suppress_tumor.html
Vitexins, nature derived lignan compounds, induce apoptosis and suppress tumor growth. Publication: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2157407_Inhibition_of_Akt_signaling_by_the_ lignan_matairesinol_sensitizes_prostate.html
Dietary lignans have shown cancer preventive and antitumorigenic activity, but the mechanisms behind these effects are poorly known. Here we observed that of  
science.naturalnews.com/…/1938497_The_effects_of_different_lignans_and _isoflavones_tested_as_aglycones.html
PURPOSE: Phytooestrogens are known to cause anti-cancer effects on mamma carcinoma cells. In this study, the effects of the lignan Secoisolariciresinol and 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2445678_Enterolactone_and_breast_cancer_ methodological_issues_may_contribute_to_conflicting.html
Enterolactone and breast cancer: methodological issues may contribute to conflicting Lignans found in plant foods are converted by the intestinal microflora to 

Lignans sources

Flaxseeds 1 oz
85.5
Sesame seeds 1 oz
11.2
Curly kale ½ cup, chopped
0.8
Broccoli ½ cup, chopped
0.6
Apricots ½ cup, sliced
0.4
Cabbage ½ cup, chopped
0.3
Brussels sprouts ½ cup, chopped
0.3
Strawberries ½ cup
0.2
Tofu ¼ block (4 oz)
0.2
Dark rye bread 1 slice
0.1

  • Silymarin

science.naturalnews.com/S/Silymarin_and_cancer.html
science.naturalnews.com/S/Silymarin_and_prostate_cancer.html
Identifying the differential effects of Silymarin constituents on cell growth and cell cycle regulatory molecules in human prostate cancer cells. 2008 International 

SOURCES :Milk thistle

See this article on milk Thistle click here

Monophenols

Hydroxytyrosol is believed to be the antioxidant with the highest free radical scavenging capacity: double that of quercetin and more than 3 times that of epicatechin.
Hydroxytyrosol is the main polyphenol found in olives.

The wastewaters generated during olive processing contain a high levels hydroxytyrosol, most of which can be recovered to produce hidroxytyrosol extracts. Studies by Visioli et al (2000) showed that a low dose of hydroxytyrosol reduces the consequences of sidestream smoke-induced oxidative stress in rats.

Health Benefits of Hydroxytyrosol

Hydroxytyrosol has the same health promoting properties than other polyphenols: prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of intestinal and respiratory health and prevention of cancer. Hydroxytyrosol also reduces the oxidative stress caused by smoking.

Abstracts

Benefits of Hydroxytyrosol

In Vivo Studies about Antioxidant Properties of Hydroxytyrosol

In Vitro Studies about Antioxidant Properties of Hydroxytyrosol

Cancer and Hydroxystyrosol

Cancer chemoprevention by hydroxytyrosol isolated from virgin olive oil through G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2002 August;11(4):351-8Epidemiologic studies and animal studies show that olive oil may reduce the risk of several diseases such as cancer and heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the main polyphenol in virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol, on tumor growth. The in vitro test were carried out in human colon cancer and leukemia cell lines. They found that hydroxytyrosol inhibited proliferation of both cancer cell lines. human promyelocytic leukaemia cells HL60 and colon adenocarcinoma cells HT29 and HT29 clone 19A. Hydroxytyrosol induced cell apoptosis and reduced cancer cell proliferation was reduced up to 50 percent. Hydroxytyrosol caused no such effects on non-cancer human cells, such as lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. The study concluded that hydroxytyrosol may protect against cancer by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.
Hydroxytyrosol, a natural molecule occurring in olive oil, induces cytochrome c-dependent apoptosisBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2000 November 30;278(3):733-9Hydroxytyrosol is a natural phenolic antioxidant found in olive oil. It has many claimed biological and pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroxytyrosol on the proliferation and survival of a leukemia cell line. The researchers found that hydroxytyrosol caused a complete arrest of leukemia cell proliferation and even induced apoptosis. This apoptotic effect was not observed with tyrosol, suggesting that presence of two ortho-hydroxyl groups is required. The study concluded that hydroxytyrosol reduces the immunological response, resulting in antinflammatory and chemopreventive effects.
science.naturalnews.com/…/2378205_Oleuropein_and_hydroxytyrosol_ inhibit_MCF_7_breast_cancer_cell_proliferation.html
Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibit MCF 7 breast cancer cell proliferation interfering with ERK1 2 activation.
science.naturalnews.com/…/606773_Anti_proliferative_and_apoptotic_ effects_of_oleuropein_and_hydroxytyrosol_on.html
In this study, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, major phenolic compound of olive oil, was studied for its effects on growth in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells 
science.naturalnews.com/Hydroxytyrosol.html
Aug 15, 2013  The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol on human breast cancerMCF-7 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2577390_Hydroxytyrosol_inhibits_growth_and_ cell_proliferation_and_promotes_high_expression.html
The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time in an animal model of experimental mammary carcinoma, the anti-cancer ability of Hydroxytyrosoland to 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2561646_Synthesis_of_a_novel_ester_of_ hydroxytyrosol_and_a_lipoic.html
Synthesis of a novel ester of hydroxytyrosol and a lipoic acid exhibiting an antiproliferative effect on human colon cancer HT 29 cells.
science.naturalnews.com/…/945006_Hydroxytyrosol_from_laboratory_ investigations_to_future_clinical_trials.html
Hydroxytyrosol: from laboratory investigations to future clinical trials.  lower rates of mortality from Cardiovascular disease and cancer than Northern European 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1518292_Hydroxytyrosol_inhibits_the_ proliferation_of_human_colon_adenocarcinoma_cells_through.htm…
Hydroxytyrosol inhibits the proliferation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells  many pathological processes, including the development of colon cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/Hydroxytyrosol_2.html
Aug 15, 2013  Hydroxytyrosol studies.  Neuroprotective effect ofhydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol acetate in rat brain slices subjected breast cancer (27)
science.naturalnews.com/…/1150773_A_concise_synthesis_of_glucuronide_ metabolites_of_urolithin_B_resveratrol.html
Finally, three O-beta-D-glucuronides of hydroxytyrosol 6, 7, and 8 have been  Has Anti-aging and Anti-Cancer Properties, Linked to Cardiovascular Health.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1423703_Protective_effect_of_hydroxytyrosol_ and_tyrosol_against_oxidative_stress_in.html
Protective effect of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol against oxidative stress in kidney cells. New Study Finds Olive Oil Effective against HER-2 Breast Cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/…/2501663_Effect_of_the_olive_oil_phenol_ hydroxytyrosol_on_human_hepatoma.html
Effect of the olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Protection  New Study Finds Olive Oil Effective against HER-2 Breast Cancer.

Influence of Hydroxystyrol on Heart Disease

Monoterpenes

Lemonol, beta-Geraniol, trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol

Geraniol is acyclic monoterpene-alcohol. Pure geraniol is a colourless oily liquid, with a sweet rose-like scent. When oxidized, geraniol becomes geranial or citral.

Bergamot, carrot, coriander, lavender, lemon, lime, nutmeg, orange, rose, blueberry and blackberry.

Health Benefits of Geraniol

Geraniol is a natural antioxidant. Geraniol has been suggested to help prevent cancer. Carnesecchi S. et al demonstrated in his study „Geraniol, a component of Plant Essential Oils, Inhibits Grwoth and Polyamine Biosyntehsis in Human Colon Cancer Cells”, (Pharmacology, July 2001) that geraniol caused a 50% increase of ornithine decarboxylase activity, which is enhances during cancer growth. Geraniol inhibits DNA synthesis.

Burk YD concluded in his study „Inhibition of Pancreatic Cancer Growth by the dietary isoprenoids farnesol and geraniol” (Lipids, February 1997) that geraniol, farnesol and perilll alcohol suppress pancreatic tumor growth.

Other animal studies have also demonstrated the anticancer effects of geraniol.

science.naturalnews.com/…/287047_Geraniol_inhibits_prostate_cancer_ growth_by_targeting_cell_cycle_and.html
Geraniol inhibits prostate cancer growth by targeting cell cycle and apoptosis pathways.
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Methyl-4-isopropenyl cyclohexene, Cajaputene, Carvene, Cinene, Dipentene, Efchole

Pure limonene is a clear liquid. Limonene is a monoterpene, made up of two isoprene units. Limonene occurs in two optically active forms, l-limonene and d-limonen. Both isomers have different odours: l-limonene smells piney and turpentine like and d-limonene has a pleasing orange scent.

Limonene is found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and many other plant species.

Limonene, found in lemons (Citrus limonum), oranges (Citrus aurantium), juniper (Juniperus communis) Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spicata, Verbena officinalis, Hyssopus officinalis, and in sage (Salvia officinalis), induces  apatosis in leukaemia cells (693).

Health Benefits of Limonene

Studies have shown that limonene have anti- cancer effects.

Limonen increase the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens. The Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a system which eliminates carcinogens. Limonene seems to promote the GST system in the liver and small bowel, thereby decreasing the damaging effects of carcinogens. Animal studies demonstrated that dietary limonene reduced mammary tumor growth.

Limonene induces the formation of apoptotic bodies on BCG-823 gastric cancer cells in a dose-and time –dependent manner (1565) and induced significant reductions of hepatocellular carcinomas (1566).

Limonene showed anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects on human gastric cancer implanted in nude mice, thus inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis (1577).

At least 6-7 lemons a day should be taken, possibly fresh, because lemons help eliminate the acid wastes from the body, increasing the reserves of alkaline substances in the blood and helping the urinary apparatus to expel uric acids. One lemon a day should be taken in the first week, to reach 7 lemons a day by the seventh week of the treatment; this should be continued this throughout the illness until the hoped-for cure. The honey from lemon flowers is currently under evaluation.

The essential oil of Citrus limonum is extremely nutritious both for its K-cals and for the phytochemicals found in it. N.B. the pressing of the oil must be done cold and without solvents.

Industrial limonene is produced by by alkali extraction of citrus residues and steam distillation. This distillate contains more than 90% d-limonene.

for studies cited above SEE LAST PAGE of DATABASE

Organosulfides

Allicin is an unstable compound that is strongly antibacterial and mainly responsible for garlic’s characteristic odor.

In vitro studies show that allicin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells. The phytochemical also exhibits antigenotoxic action. But the anticancer effect of allicin in humans remains uncertain, because of its low stability and poor bioavailability.

A study conducted at the Nanjing Medical University, China, concluded that allicininhibited the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells in vitro at non-cytotoxic concentration through down-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), urokinase receptor (uPAR) and heparanase mRNA [1]. The researchers tested the effect of allicin on invasion and metastasis of human colon cancer cell line LoVo in vitro by using migratory test, adhesion test and Transwell chamber experiment. Allicin showed an inhibitive effects on growth of the cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The phytochemicals suppressed the movement, adhesion and invasive capability of carcinoma cells.

A study by the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, demonstrated the antiproliferative function of allicin on two leukemia cell lines (HL60 and U937) [2]. They found that allicin showed anticancer effect by inducing growth inhibition, apoptotic events such as blebbing, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. Allicin reduced glutathione in the cytosol and mitochondria and changed the intracellular redox status.

Siddique and Afzal of the Aligarh Muslim University, India, investigated the antigenotoxic potential of allicin in cultured human lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges induced by the genotoxic methyl methanesulphonate [3]. They found that allicin treatment reduced the damage caused by the genotoxin, as illustrated by lower levels of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges.

[1] Effects of allicin on invasion and metastasis of colon cancer LoVo cell line in vitro. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009 May 26;89(20):1382-6.

[2] Allicin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in HL60 and U937 cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Aug;19(8):524-35.

[3] Antigenotoxic effect of allicin against methyl methanesulphonate induced genotoxic damage. J Environ Biol. 2005 Jul;26(3):547-50.

See this extensive article on garlic  click here

Gamma-Glutamylcysteinylglycine

Glutathione is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine.

Although glutathione is produced by our body is can be beneficial to consume extra glutathione through the diet.

Glutathione is mainly in animal products but also in many plants including avocado, asparagus, broccoli, grapefruit, potato, strawberries, orange, tomato, peach and spinach.

Health Benefits of Glutathine

Glutathione is an important antioxidant. Glutathione neutralizes toxic peroxide which could otherwise damage our DNA and cell membranes. As we get older the glutathione level decreases in intracellular fluids. Dietary intake of glutathione can be important for older individuals which have reduced capabilities to detoxify free radicals. Glutathione also reacts with some toxins and helps to break them down, such as the pain reliever acetaminophen.

Glutathione improves the stability of other antioxidants including vitamin C and vitamin E. Glutathione supports our immune system and stimulates the production of lymphocyte immune cells.

Studies on Glutathione and cancer

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I3C, 3-hydroxymethyl indole, 3-indole methanol

The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol is found in cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale and brussels sprouts. Indole-3-carbinol is made from indole-3-glucosinolate by the enzyme myrosinase. This enzyme is only activated after maceration of the vegetables.Pure indole-3-Carbinol is an off-white solid belonging to the group of indoles. Indole-3-carbinol is only formed in these vegetable after crushing or during cooking

Health Benefits of Indole-3-Carbinol

Indole-3-carbinol and its main metabolite diindoylmethane modulates several nuclear transcription factors resulting in a variety of biological and biochemical effects. Indole-3-carbinol works as a strong antioxidant, thereby protecting the DNA and other cell structures.Chemopreventive

Indole-3-carbinol has chemopreventive activity and stimulates the production of detoxifying enzymes. The phytochemical protects against carcinogenic effect of pesticides and other toxins.Anticancer

The anticancer effects of indole-3-carbinol and its metabolite diindoylmethane are the result of specific activities: inducing enzymes that metabolize carcinogens, enhancing DNA repair, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

Diets high in vegetables, especially cruciferous vegetables provide protection against cancer. Cruciferous vegetables provide the only source of glucosinolates, which breaks down in indole-3-carbinol and sulforaphane. The anticancer effects of indole-3-carbinol and diindoylmethane are the result of specific activities: inducing phase I and phase II enzymes that metabolize carcinogens, enhancing DNA repair, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

Most studies have focused on the effects on endometrial cancerbreast cancer and prostate cancer.Tumor progression relies on the upregulation of signaling pathways relevant to cell proliferation and increased resistance against chemotherapeutic agents. Indole-3-carbinol and its metabolite diindoylmethane target different aspects of carcinogenesis, such as estrogen metabolism, estrogen receptor signaling, Akt-NF kappa B signaling, caspase activation, cyclin-dependent kinase activities, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and expression of tumor suppression genes [1].

Many in-vitro results have demonstrated the anticancer effect of indol-3-carbinol, but these favorable results should be treated with extra care because of its low biological availability in humans. A phase I trial demonstrated that after a oral intake of up to 1200 mg indol-3-carbionol did not result in detectable plasma levels of the phytochemical [2].

The researchers could only detect diindolylmethane , a metabolite of indole-3-carbinol, which reached max plasma level 2 hours after the administration on indole-63-carbinol, but disappeared almost completely after 12 hours. The pharmaceutical industry has already developed and patented anti-cancer chemicals with structure similar to that of diindolyl)methane, a metabolite of indole-3-carbinol.

[1] Indole-3-carbinol as a chemopreventive and anti-cancer agent. Cancer Lett. 2008 Apr 18;262(2):153-63.

[2] Single-dose and multiple-dose administration of indole-3-carbinol to women: pharmacokinetics based on 3,3′-diindolylmethane. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Dec;15(12):2477-81.[3] The natural chemopreventive compound indole-3-carbinol: state of the science. In Vivo. 2006 Mar-Apr;20(2):221-8.

Indole-3-carbinol blocks estrogen receptor sites on the membranes of breast and other cells, thereby reducing the risk of cervical and breast cancer.
Recent results from epidemiology, in vitro cell culture and in vivo studies have suggested the benefits of indole-3-carbinol for the prevention of many types of cancer, including breast cancer. Oral administration of indole-3-carbinol has been shown to influence our estrogen metabolism in humans in a beneficial manner. It increases the ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone.
Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that 16alpha-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites react as strong estrogens, and are associated with breast cancer risk, while 2-hydroxylated metabolites have a lower estrogenic activity and are weakly related to this disease. Indole-3-carbinol is a good candidate for clinical trial in women at increased risk of developing breast cancer. Fan S and co-workers of the Georgetown University (New York) reported that both indole-3-carrbinol and genistein target the breast cancer susceptibility genes in both prostate and breast cancer cells [4].
The breast cancer susceptibility genes are responsible for the suppression of tumor growth, not only of breast cancer cells but also ovarian and prostate cancer cells. This in-vitro study showed that the phytochemicals induced the expression of these genes.An in-vitro study with cultured human breast cancer cells demonstrated that indole-3-carbinol directly inhibited elastase enzymatic activity and concluded that this phytochemicals, or similar compounds, should be further investigated as drug for the treatment of human breast cancers where high elastase levels are correlated with poor prognosis [2].
More specifically they found that indole-3-carbinol shifted the stable accumulation of cyclin E protein from the lower molecular mass form, that is associated with cancer cell proliferation and poor clinical outcomes, to its higher molecular mass form, that is typically produced in normal cells. A Taiwanese study found that indole-3-carbinol reduced the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells [3].
The phytochemical inhibited matrix metalloproteinases expression by blocking the ERK/Sp1-mediated gene transcription.Indole-3-carbinol might improve the effect of tamoxifen according to an experiment with rats carried out by the University of Minnesota [4].
Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used in the treatment of breast cancer. The scientists induced tumors in rats by dosing the carcinogen dimethylbenz-a-anthracene and then treated the rats with tamoxifen, indole-3-carbionol or a combination of both. All three types of treatment resulted in a significant increased latency and decreased mass of malignant mammary tumors, but also treatment with indole-3-carbinol, although the effect of indole-3-carbinol alone was weaker.A study by scientists of the University of California concluded that indole-32-carbinol had an influence on the function and expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERA) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERB) [6].
By increasing the ratio of ERA to ERB indole-3-carbinol could reduce the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. The tests were conducted on breast cancer cells that expressed both ERA and ERB. Treatment of these breast cancer cells with indole-3-carbinol strongly inhibited ERB protein production, without that of ERA.Indole-3-carbinol selectively induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, but not in nontumorigenic breast cells, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefit of I3C against breast cancer [7]. Low levels of indole-3-carbinol inhibited the growth of the tumor cells more than that of normal breast cells. The phytochemical upregulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and downregulated Bcl-xL expression only in the breast cancer cells.
[1] Prevention and treatment of cancer with indole-3-carbinol. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Dec;6(6):580-9.
[2] The dietary phytochemical indole-3-carbinol is a natural elastase enzymatic inhibitor that disrupts cyclin E protein processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 8.
[3] Indole-3-carbinol Inhibits Sp1-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression To Attenuate Migration and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Dec 5.
[4] BRCA1 and BRCA2 as molecular targets for phytochemicals indole-3-carbinol and genistein in breast and prostate cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2006 Feb 13;94(3):407-26.
[5] Suppression of mammary gland carcinogenesis by post-initiation treatment of rats with tamoxifen or indole-3-carbinol or their combination. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007 Apr;16(2):130-41.
[6] Indole-3-carbinol selectively uncouples expression and activity of estrogen receptor subtypes in human breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Dec;20(12):3070-82. Epub 2006 Aug 10.
[7] Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) induces apoptosis in tumorigenic but not in nontumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(1):101-12.
Indole-3-carbinol increases the ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone and inhibits the 4-hydroxylation of estradiol. This is a favourable action of indole-3-carbinol because 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone and 4-hydroxyestrone have carcinogenic action.
The estrogen metabolite 2-hydroxyestrone has protective against several types of cancer. Studies with animals have demonstrated that indole-3-carbinol reduced the carcinogenic affects of aflatoxins. The influence of indole-3-carbinol on the development of prostate cancer is less clear. Most studies report protective effects but a few studies indicate that indole-3-carbinol may promote prostate cancer formation.
In the USA prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Epidemiological and dietary studies have shown a link between high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables and decreased prostate cancer risk. A study conducted by Technion Israel Institute of Technology (Haifa) showed that indole-3-carbinol had a significant inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and concluded that this phytochemicals is a potential candidate as both preventive and therapeutic agent for humans [1].
The researchers tested the effect of indole-3-carbinol on the growth of prostate cancer cells inoculated subcutaneously in mice. They found that the administration of indole-3-carbinol significantly reduced cells proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of the prostate cancer cells. Fan S and co-workers of the Georgetown University (New York) reported that both indole-3-carrbinol and genistein target the breast cancer susceptibility genes in both prostate and breast cancer cells [2].
The breast cancer susceptibility genes are responsible for the suppression of tumor growth, not only of breast cancer cells but also ovarian and prostate cancer cells. This in-vitro study showed that the phytochemicals induced the expression of these genes.Another study found that injected indole-3-carbinol has anti-prostate cancer activity in rats [3].
Both intraperitoneal (in the body cavity) and intravenous injection of the phytochemical inhibited the growth, incidence and metastases of prostate cancer cells which were injected in rats.A study conducted at the Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, concluded that indole-3-carbinol and its metabolite diindolylmethane are candidates for the prevention and the treatment of prostate cancer [4].
The researchers confirmed that indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane upregulate the expression of phase I and phase II enzymes, which are involved in the detoxification and inhibition of carcinogens. Both phytochemicals regulate many genes that are important for the control of cell cycle, cell proliferation, signal transduction, and other cellular processes.A study conducted by the Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, suggested that indole-3-carbinol may be an effective sensitizer of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) treatment against TRAIL-resistant prostate cancer cell lines [5].
TRAIL is a ligand molecule which induces the process apoptosis in a variety of transformed cells including prostate cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells. The researchers, led by Jeon KI, tested the potential sensitizing effects of indole-3-carbinol on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in a prostate cancer cell line. They found that the phytochemical enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and that the apoptosis was the result of increased levels of two trail death receptors.
[1] Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) exhibits inhibitory and preventive effects on prostate tumors in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar;46(3):863-70.
[2] BRCA1 and BRCA2 as molecular targets for phytochemicals indole-3-carbinol and genistein in breast and prostate cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2006 Feb 13;94(3):407-26.
[3] Anti-carcinogenic and anti-metastatic properties of indole-3-carbinol in prostate cancer. Oncol Rep. 2005 Jan;13(1):89-93.
[4] Indole-3-carbinol and prostate cancer.J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3493S-3498S.Sarkar FH, Li Y.
Treatment of skin cancer cells with ultraviolet-B results in the apoptosis of their apoptosis, a favorable effect that seems to be stimulated by indole-3-carbinol. Some studies also show a beneficial effect on the treatment of skin cancer.Every year more than 1 million new cases of ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancers occur in the USA. Although exposure to sun and specifically ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of skin cancers, treatment of skin cancer cells with ultraviolet-B also results in their apoptosis, a favorable effect that seems to be stimulated by indole-3-carbinol.
That is what scientist of the Seoul National University found in an experiment with cultured human melanoma cells [1].
They investigated the effect of indole-3-carbinol on the sensitization to ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis . They found that a combined treatment with the indole-3-carbinol and ultraviolet-B synergistically reduced melanoma cell viability, whereas the phytochemical or ultraviolet-B alone had little effect. Indole-3-carbinol acted by down-regulating pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.
Another study also demonstrated the protective action of indol-3-carbinol on ultraviolet-induced carcinogenic process on skin cells of mice [2]. They conducted tests on groups of 20 mice exposed ultraviolet radiation and to fed with respectively chlorophyllin, indole-3-carbinol or placebo. The scientists found that rats fed with chlorophyllin should a significant increase in tumor multiplicity, whereas those supplemented with indol-3-carbinol has significant lower tumor multiplicity.[
1] Indole-3-carbinol enhances ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis by sensitizing human melanoma cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Nov;63(22):2661-8.
[2] Ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer in the Crl:SKH1:hr-BR hairless mouse: augmentation of tumor multiplicity by chlorophyllin and protection by indole-3-carbinol. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2006 May;5(5):499-507.Indol-3-carbinol, and OTHER (Brassica vegetables); conversion to isothiocyanates.

Indole 3 Carbinol (See also Di-indole methane) I3C, as it is frequently called, has been tested and documented in humans and results are highly promising. Indole-3-carbinol reduced or halted the formation of precancerous lesions (papillomas) in 12 out of 18 people with recurrent respiratory tract papillomas. In addition, in a small double-blind trial, supplementation with 200 or 400 mg of indole-3-carbinol per day for 12 weeks reversed early-stage cervical cancer in 8 of 17 women. Preliminary studies have also shown indole-3-carbinol has significantly increased the conversion of estrogen from cancer-producing forms to nontoxic breakdown products. Indole-3-carbinol is found in highest concentrations in broccoli, but is also found in other cruciferous vegetables, such as cauliflower, cabbage, and kale. This treatment would be indicated for those with hormonal related cancers. Note: Di-indole methane is considered a stronger metabolite of I3C.

science.naturalnews.com/I/Indole-3-Carbinol_and_cancer.html
  1. Pretreatment of Indole-3-Carbinol augments TRAIL-induced apoptosis in a prostatecancer cell line, LNCaP.
    2003 FEBS letters
  2. Indole-3-Carbinol and prostate cancer.
    2004 The Journal of nutrition
  3. Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) induced cell growth inhibition, G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
    2001 Oncogene
  4. Inactivation of akt and NF-kappaB play important roles during indole-3-carbinol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
    2004 Nutrition and cancer
  5. Indole-3-Carbinol prevents cervical cancer in human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) transgenic mice.
    1999 Cancer research
  6. Therapeutic intervention of experimental breast cancer bone metastasis by Indole-3-Carbinol in SCID-human mouse model.
    2006 Molecular cancer therapeutics
  7. The effect of Indole-3-Carbinol and sulforaphane on a prostate cancer cell line.
    2003 ANZ journal of surgery
  8. A potent Indole-3-Carbinol derived antitumor agent with pleiotropic effects on multiple signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells.
    2007 Cancer research
  9. Indole-3-Carbinol as a chemopreventive and anti-cancer agent.
    2008 Cancer letters
  10. 1-Benzyl-indole-3-carbinol is a novel Indole-3-Carbinol derivative with significantly enhanced potency of anti-proliferative and anti-estrogenic properties in human breastcancer cells.
    2010 Chemico-biological interactions
  11. Indole-3-Carbinol prevents PTEN loss in cervical cancer in vivo.
    2005 Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
  12. Gender differences in gemcitabine (Gemzar) efficacy in cancer cells: effect of indole-3-carbinol.
    2010 Anticancer research
  13. BRCA1 and BRCA2 as molecular targets for phytochemicals Indole-3-Carbinol and genistein in breast and prostate cancer cells.
    2006 British journal of cancer
  14. Indole-3-Carbinol and tamoxifen cooperate to arrest the cell cycle of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
    1999 Cancer research
  15. Anti-carcinogenic and anti-metastatic properties of Indole-3-Carbinol in prostate cancer.
    2005 Oncology reports
  16. Bax translocation to mitochondria is an important event in inducing apoptotic cell death by Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) treatment of breast cancer cells.
    2003 The Journal of nutrition
  17. A new Indole-3-Carbinol tetrameric derivative inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 6 expression, and induces G1 cell cycle arrest in both estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent breast cancer cell lines.
    2003 Cancer research
  18. Indole-3-Carbinol stimulates transcription of the interferon gamma receptor 1 gene and augments interferon responsiveness in human breast cancer cells.
    2004 Carcinogenesis
  19. Anti-estrogenic activities of Indole-3-Carbinol in cervical cells: implication for prevention of cervical cancer.
    1999 Anticancer research
  20. Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C)-induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal cancer cells through Fas/FasL and MAPK pathway.
    2010 Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  21. Direct inhibition of elastase activity by Indole-3-Carbinol triggers a CD40-TRAF regulatory cascade that disrupts NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in human breastcancer cells.
    2010 Cancer research
  22. Putative mechanisms of action for Indole-3-Carbinol in the prevention of colorectal cancer.
    2008 Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
  23. Indole-3-Carbinol inhibits MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell motility and induces stress fibers and focal adhesion formation by activation of Rho kinase activity.
    2009 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer
  24. Indole-3-Carbinol inhibits Sp1-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression to attenuate migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.
    2009 Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  25. Indole-3-Carbinol selectively uncouples expression and activity of estrogen receptor subtypes in human breast cancer cells.
    2006 Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  26. Indole-3-Carbinol mediated cell cycle arrest of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells requires the induced production of activated p53 tumor suppressor protein.
    2006 Biochemical pharmacology
  27. Modulation of the constitutive activated STAT3 transcription factor in pancreaticcancer prevention: effects of Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and genistein.
    2004 Anticancer research
  28. Indole-3-Carbinol and 3,3′-diindolylmethane induce apoptosis in human prostatecancer cells.
    2003 Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  29. Inhibition of proliferation of a colon cancer cell line by indole-3-carbinol.
    2002 Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  30. The Indole-3-Carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet inhibits cell proliferation via overexpression of p21/CDKN1A in both estrogen receptor positive and triple negative breast cancer cell lines.
    2011 Breast cancer research : BCR
  31. Indole-3-Carbinol triggers aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent estrogen receptor (ER)alpha protein degradation in breast cancer cells disrupting an ERalpha-GATA3 transcriptional cross-regulatory loop.
    2010 Molecular biology of the cell
  32. Cancer chemotherapy with indole-3-carbinol, bis(3′-indolyl)methane and synthetic analogs.
    2008 Cancer letters
  33. Ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer in the Crl:SKH1:hr-BR hairless mouse: augmentation of tumor multiplicity by chlorophyllin and protection by indole-3-carbinol.
    2006 Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology
  34. Indole-3-carbinol-induced modulation of NF-kappaB signalling is breast cancer cell-specific and does not correlate with cell death.
    2008 Breast cancer research and treatment
  35. Indole-3-Carbinol inhibition of androgen receptor expression and downregulation of androgen responsiveness in human prostate cancer cells.
    2005 Carcinogenesis
  36. N-Alkoxy derivatization of Indole-3-Carbinol increases the efficacy of the G1 cell cycle arrest and of I3C-specific regulation of cell cycle gene transcription and activity in human breast cancer cells.
    2008 Biochemical pharmacology
  37. Synthetic dimer of indole-3-carbinol: second generation diet derived anti-cancer agent in hormone sensitive prostate cancer.
    2006 The Prostate
  38. Indole-3-Carbinol and 3-3′-diindolylmethane antiproliferative signaling pathways control cell-cycle gene transcription in human breast cancer cells by regulating promoter-Sp1 transcription factor interactions.
    2003 The Journal of nutrition
  39. Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase-2 function in human breastcancer cells by regulating the size distribution, associated cyclin E forms, and subcellular localization of the CDK2 protein complex.
    2005 The Journal of biological chemistry
  40. Indole-3-Carbinol inhibits CDK6 expression in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by disrupting Sp1 transcription factor interactions with a composite element in the CDK6 gene promoter.
    2001 The Journal of biological chemistry
  41. Multiple molecular targets of indole-3-carbinol, a chemopreventive anti-estrogen in breast cancer.
    2002 European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the Europeancancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  42. Targets for Indole-3-Carbinol in cancer prevention.
    2005 The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
  43. Inhibition of lung carcinogenesis and critical cancer-related signaling pathways by N-acetyl-S-(N-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-l-cysteine, Indole-3-Carbinol and myo-inositol, alone and in combination.
    2010 Carcinogenesis
  44. Targeting of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by the Indole-3-Carbinol metabolite 3,3′-diindolylmethane in breastcancer cells.
    2009 The Journal of nutrition
  45. Review. Indole-3-Carbinol as a chemoprotective agent in breast and prostate cancer.
    2008 In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  46. Indole-3-Carbinol enhances anti-proliferative, but not anti-invasive effects of oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer cell lines.
    2008 Biochemical pharmacology
  47. Molecular targets and anticancer potential of Indole-3-Carbinol and its derivatives.
    2005 Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  48. Inhibition of MUC1 expression by indole-3-carbinol.
    2004 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer
  49. Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) induces apoptosis in tumorigenic but not in nontumorigenic breast epithelial cells.
    2003 Nutrition and cancer
  50. A novel mechanism of Indole-3-Carbinol effects on breast carcinogenesis involves induction of Cdc25A degradation.
    2010 Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  51. Indole-3-Carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen.
    2003 The Journal of nutrition

http://science.naturalnews.com/I/Indole-3-Carbinol_and_Chemopreventive.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/I/Indole-3-Carbinol_and_Anti-Estrogenic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/I/Indole-3-Carbinol_and_Anti-Proliferative.html

NOTE: Di-Indole Methane

Di-Indole Methane is the direct metabolite of I3C (Indole-3-Carbinol) and twice as strong. This naturally occurring extract of the cabbage (cruciferous) family vegetables has proven effective in studies worldwide against hormonal related cancers. It’s mechanism is to decrease high estrogen levels in both men and women, an issue which usually leads to cancer or other illnesses often associated with aging. Included are prostate disease, breast and uterine cancers, and weight gain. Supplementing the diet with DIM and eating cruciferous vegetables increases the specific aerobic metabolism for estrogen, multiplying the chance for so-called bad estrogen to be broken down into beneficial, or good estrogen metabolites. These good estrogen metabolites are known as the 2-hydroxy estrogens.

DIM (diindolylmethane) DIM is a phytochemical that is found in broccoli, cabbage, turnip and mustard greens, kale, brussel sprouts, collards, etc. „The first development in this research using chemically altered [sic] DIM from broccoli came when the growth of breast cancer cells was inhibited in laboratory studies. Subsequent research showed these compounds also inhibited growth of pancreatic, colon, bladder and ovarian cancer cells in culture, Safe said. Limited trials on lab mice and rats have produced the similar results, he noted.”  „Researchers from the University of California at Berkeley looked at the effects of broccoli on human breast cancer cells. According to findings, compounds in broccoli known as indoles are digested and broken down in the stomach to a compound called 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM). This compound may be the key to keeping cancer at bay.” 

Isothiocyanates are sulphur-containing phytochemicals with the general formula R-NCS. Different molecules belong to this group. Isothiocyanates with the stongest anticancer effects are phenylethylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 3-phenylpropylisothiocyanate. Isothiocyanates occur naturally as glucosinolate conjugates in cruciferous vegetables. Isothiocyanates are also responsible for the typical flavour of these vegetables.

Isothiocyanates can be found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, turnips, collards, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, radish, turnip and watercress. Glucosinolates are precursors of isothiocyanates. When the raw vegetables are chewed the plant cells are broken and an enzyme (myrosinase) hydrolyses the glucosinolates into isothiocyanates.

Health Benefits of Isothiocyanates

Isothiocyanates combat carcinogens by neutralizing them, reducing their poisonous effect and stimulating the secretion of carcinogens of carcinogens. Isothiocyanates act by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

The isothiocyanates with the stongest anticancer effects are phenylethylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 3-phenylpropylisothiocyanate. Studies have shown that isothiocyanates help to prevent lung cancer and esophageal cancer. Isothiocyanates can also lower the risk of other cancers, including gastrointestinal cancer.

science.naturalnews.com/…/1947743_Dietary_isothiocyanates_glutathione_S _transferase_M1_GSTM1_and_lung_cancer.html
Dietary isothiocyanates, glutathione S transferase M1 (GSTM1), and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Caucasians from Los Angeles County, California.
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Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from cruciferous vegetables induce apoptosis in cancercells. We demonstrate that certain naturally occurring ITCs selectively 
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Cancer preventive isothiocyanates induce selective degradation of cellular alpha and beta tubulins by proteasomes.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1314059_Isothiocyanates_glutathione_S_ transferase_M1_and_T1_polymorphisms_and_gastric.html
Isothiocyanates, glutathione S transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms and gastric cancerrisk: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China.
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Chemoprevention of cancer by isothiocyanates and anthocyanins: mechanisms of action and structure activity relationship.
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Isothiocyanate exposure, glutathione S transferase polymorphisms, and colorectal cancerrisk. Publication: The American journal of clinical nutrition. Publication 
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The present study examined the associations among urinary isothiocyanates, Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk in a 
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However, the effect of isothiocyanates on lung cancer cell metastasis has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of BITC 
science.naturalnews.com/…/3294354_Head_and_neck_cancer_a_case_for_ inhibition_by_isothiocyanates.html
Head and neck cancer: a case for inhibition by isothiocyanates and indoles from cruciferous vegetables.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1569614_Prostate_cancer_chemopreventive_ activity_of_phenethyl_isothiocyanate_through_epigenetic_regulatio…
Consumption of cruciferous Vegetables has been reported to be associated with reduced incidence of prostate cancer cases. The isothiocyanates, including 
science.naturalnews.com/…/3381294_Repression_of_androgen_receptor_in_ prostate_cancer_cells_by_phenethyl.html
Repression of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by phenethyl isothiocyanate. Publication: Carcinogenesis Publication Date: 2006. Study Author(s): 
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Isothiocyanates sensitize the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs via modulation of protein kinase C and telomerase in cervical cancer cells.
science.naturalnews.com/…/125542_Anti_NF_kappaB_and_anti_ inflammatory_activities_of_synthetic_isothiocyanates.html
Of the natural compounds, the Isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous Vegetables have received particular attention because of their potential anti- cancer 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1338610_ABC_transporters_and_isothiocyanates _potential_for_pharmacokinetic_diet_drug_interactions.html
Isothiocyanates, a class of anti-cancer agents, are derived from cruciferous Vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and watercress, and have demonstrated 
science.naturalnews.com/…/209522_New_biomarkers_for_monitoring_the_ levels_of_isothiocyanates_in_humans.html
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables have demonstrated cancerpreventive activity in animals, and increased dietary intake of ITCs has been 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2587875_Urinary_isothiocyanate_levels_and_ lung_cancer_risk_among_non_smoking.html
Urinary isothiocyanate levels and lung cancer risk among non smoking women: A prospective investigation.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1538721_Metabolism_of_isothiocyanates_in_ individuals_with_positive_and_null_GSTT1.html
BACKGROUND & AIMS : Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from cruciferous vegetables have been shown to be promising agents against cancer in human cell 

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore studied the metabolism of isothiocyanates and found that isothiocyanates were about six times more bioavailable than glucosinolates.

Sulforaphane is a phytochemical belonging to the family of isothiocyanates, which means it contains the typical NCS group.

(R)-1-isothiocyanto-4-methyl-sulfonyl butane

Sulforaphane occurs in plants bound to a sugar molecule: sulforaphane glucosinolate. Only after eating will the sulforaphane by released. Sulforaphane glucosinolate is found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and kale. The richest source of sulforaphane are broccoli sprouts.

Health Benefits of Sulforaphane

Sulforaphane is an antioxidant and stimulators of natural detoxifying enzymes. Sulforaphane may reduce the risk of breast, bladder and prostate cancer.

Anti-cancer effect

Epidemiological studies show that people who eat a lot of cruciferous vegetables have reduces incidences of cancer. In-vitro and animals studies have confirmed the anti-cancer effects and have demonstrated that the phytochemical reduces the frequency, size, and number of tumors.

During the fight against cancer cells our body produces special enzymes, called phase 2 enzymes. Sulforaphane is a phase 2 enzyme inducer, thereby neutralizing carcinogens before they can damage DNA. Sulforaphane inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-DNA and 1,6-dinitropyrene-DNA adducts formation. A study by James D. Brooks et al entitled Potent Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes in Human Prostate Cells by Sulforaphane has shown that sulforaphane induces phase 2 enzyme expression and activity in human prostate cells [1]. This study may help to explain the lower prostate cancer risk with men who consume more cruciferous vegetables.A team of scientists lead by B. Abbouit at the Ohio State University investigated the effect of isothiocyanates (sulforaphane and erucin) in primary or secondary bladder cancer prevention. Both phytochemicals showed inhibition of bladder cancer cells, which was associated downregulation of survivin, epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and apoptosis.

A 2012 study by the Texas Children’s Hospital suggested a potential role of sulforaphane as an adjunctive agent to improve the therapeutic response in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients [3]. This type of cancer is the most common hematological cancer in children. The scientists found that purified sulforaphane had anticancer properties in a broad range of leukemic cells. More specifically they found that sulforaphane caused dose-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, mainly by activation of caspases. While sulforaphane killed cancer cells, it did not affect healthy cells. It should be noted that the levels of sulforaphane used in this study were quite high and can not be obtained by eating cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli.

[1] Potent induction of phase-2-enzymes in human prostate cells by sulforaphane.. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 10, 949-954, September 2001

[2] Inhibition of bladder cancer by broccoli isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin: characterization, metabolism, and interconversion. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Nov;56(11):1675-87

[3] Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51251

science.naturalnews.com/S/Sulforaphane_and_cancer.html
science.naturalnews.com/S/Sulforaphane_and_prostate_cancer.html
science.naturalnews.com/S/Sulforaphane_and_breast_cancer.html

Heart health

The antioxidant action of sulforaphane helps to fight high blood pressure. A study by the Tokyo University of Agriculture has shown that persons who eat about 100 g of broccoli sprouts daily during one week had reduces levels of cholesterol.

Research Reviews

Potent induction of phase-2-enzymes in human prostate cells by sulforaphane.

Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo-a-pyrene-induced stomach tumors

Phenolic Acids

trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, N-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-8-methyl-non-trans-6-enamide

Capsaicin is the phytochemical in chilli peppers that causes the typical heat. Pure capsaicin is a white crystalline powder. Capsaicin is a capsaicinoid which belongs to the alkaloid family. It is very heat stable and keeps its activity despite cooking. Capsaicin is only slightly soluble in water, but very soluble in ethanol and vegetable oil. Other capsaicinoid are dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin.

Health Benefits of Capsaicin

ANTIcancer

science.naturalnews.com/C/Capsaicin_and_cancer.html

Capsaicin is used in many topical ointments used to relieve the pain of peripheral neuropathy (treatment of pain in the nerve endings near the surface of the skin). Capsaicin is then applied on the skin and removed when the patient starts feeling the burning sensation. The nerves seem to become insensitive to pain. The burning sensations of capsaicin is caused by its interaction with the nerve cells. Capsaicin binds with special receptor cells (vanilloid receptor subtype 1) and produces the same effect as physical heat. Consumption of capsaicin can also create a euphoric sensation caused by the release endorphins.

Studies have shown that capsaicin can relieve arthritic symptoms and improve flexibility of the joints. Capsaicin seems to inhibit the activity of DSP (Decapeptide Substance P), which the painful feeling of arthritis.

Capsaicin might protect against gastric ulcers. Studies have shown that capsaicin protects the stomach membrane by increasing the blood flow.

Capsaicin seems to reduce the symptoms of psoriasis. A study by Ellis CN et al., „A double-blind evaluation of topical capsaicin in pruritic psoriasis” (Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Sept 1993) showed that patients with psoriasis who took capsaicin cream had reduced itching, scaling and redness compared with patients who used a placebo.

Why do plants contain capsaicin? By producing the burning capsaicin the pepper plant prevents animals from eating its fruits. Birds don?t feel the burning sensation of capsaicin so they eat the fruits and are responsible for the spreading of seeds. The chilli seeds survive the digestion process. Capsaicin is also a component of pepper spray, used as chemical riot control agent.

Abstracts

Capsaicin and Health

Benzoaric acid, eleagic acid, elagostasine, gallogen

Ellagic acid is a fused four-ring polyphenol.

Ellagic acid is present in many red fruits and berries, including raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, cranberries, pomegranate and some nuts including pecans and walnuts. The highest levels of ellagic acid are found in raspberries. In plants ellagic acid is present in the form of ellagitannin, which is ellagic acid bound to a sugar molecule.

Pure ellagic acid is a cream to light yellow crystalline solid.

Health Benefits of Ellagic Acid

Ellagic acid has antioxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-cancer properties. Studies have shown the anti-cancer activity on cancer cells of the breast, oesophagus, skin, colon, prostate and pancreas. More specifically, ellagic acid prevents the destruction of P53 gene by cancer cells. Ellagic acid can bind with cancer causing molecules, thereby making them inactive. In their studie The effects of dietary ellagic acid on rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 and phase II enzymes. Ahn D et al showed that ellagic acid causes a decrease in total hepatic mucosal cytochromes and an increase in some hepatic phase II enzyme activities, thereby enhancing the ability of the target tissues to detoxify the reactive intermediates. Ellagic acid showed also a chemoprotective effect against various chemically induced cancers.

Studies on Ellagic Acid and cancer –

science.naturalnews.com/E/Ellagic_Acid_and_cancer.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/E/Ellagic_acid_and_Antiproliferative.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/E/Ellagic_acid_and_Anti-Angiogenic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/E/Ellagic_acid_and_Apoptotic.html

A study by Thresiamma KC and Kuttan R.Indian (Indian Journal Physiology and Pharmacology, 1996 October) indicate that oral administration of ellagic acid by rats can circumvent the carbon tetrachloride toxicity and subsequent fibrosis of the liver.

Ellagic acid has also antiviral and antibacterial activities.

Plants produce ellagic acid to protect themselves from microbiological infection and pests.

Research Reviews

Pomegranate Juice Ellagitannin Metabolites Are Present in Human Plasma and Some Persist in Urine for Up to 48 Hours

Chemoprevention of esophageal tumorigenesis by dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries.

.

3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid

Gallic acid occurs as a freemolecule or as part of a tannin molecule.

Gallic acid is found in almost all plants. Plants known for their high gallic acid content include gallnuts, grapes, tea, hops and oak bark. Pure gallic acid is a colourless crystalline organic powder.

Health Benefits of Gallic acid

Gallic acid seems to have anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. Gallic acid acts as a antioxidant and helps to protect our cells against oxidative damage. Gallic acid was found to show cytotoxicity against cancer cells, without harming healthy cells.

science.naturalnews.com/G/Gallic_acid_and_cancer.html

Gallic acid is used a remote astringent in cases of internal haemorrhage. Gallic acid is also used to treat albuminuria and diabetes. Some ointment to treat psoriasis and external haemorrhoids contain gallic acid.

Rosmarinic acid is found in big quantities in oregano, lemon balm, sage, marjoram, rosemary.

Rosmarinic acid has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

The antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid is stronger than that of vitamin E. Rosmarinic acid helps to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk for cancer and atherosclerosis.

Rosmarinic acid has anti-inflammatory properties. Perilla, rich in rosmarinic acid, is used for its anti-allergic activity. A study by Sanbongi C and colleagues (Clinical and Experimental Allergy, June 2004) have shown that the oral administration of rosmarinic acid is an effective intervention for allergic asthma. Another study by Youn J and colleagues (Journal of Rheumatology, June 2003) demonstrated that rosmarinic acid suppressed synovitis in mice and that it may be beneficial for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Unlike antihistamines, rosmarinic acid prevents the activation of immune responder cells, which cause swelling and fluid formation.

Rosmarinic acid is also used for food preservation. In Japan the perilla extracts, rich in rosmarinic acid, is used the garnish and improve the shelf life of fresh seafood.

Rosmarinic acid is used to treat peptic ulcers, arthritis, cataract, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and bronchial asthma.

Studies on Rosmarinic acid and cancer

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Rosmarinic acid antagonizes activator protein 1 dependent activation of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in human cancer and nonmalignant cell lines.
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Subsequently, six extracts and the active compounds, carnosic acid, andRosmarinic acid were applied to various human cancer cell lines including NCI- H82 
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Rosmarinic acid sensitizes cell death through suppression of TNF alpha  of RA have not been well elucidated in TNF-alpha-mediated anti-cancer therapy.
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Aug 15, 2013  Rosmarinic acid antagonizes activator protein-1-dependent activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human cancer and nonmalignant cell 
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Rosmarinic acid antagonizes activator protein-1-dependent activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human cancer and nonmalignant cell lines. 2008 The 
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Our study showed that Rosmarinic acid (RA) could inhibit the migration of MDA- MB-231BO human bone-homing breast cancer cells dose-dependently.
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 enhances the efficacy of Prunella in prevention and treatment of lung cancer caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin, quercetin, Oleanolic acid and Ursolic Acid.

Gallotanic acid, digallic acid, allotannin, tannimum.Tannic acid is a polymer of gallic acid molecules and glucose. It the example there are 3 gallic acid molecules, but normally there are about 8. Because there are different molecular structures for tannic acid it would have been better to speak about tannic acids (in plural). Tannic acid will hydrolyze into glucose and gallic or ellagic acid units. Tannic acid is odourless but has a very astringent taste. Pure tannic acid is a light yellowish and amorphous powder.

Tea, nettle, wood, berries, Chinese galls. Oak wood is very rich in tannic acid. When wine is kept in oak kegs some tannic acid will migrate into the wine. High levels of tannic acid are found in some plant galls. These are formed by plants when they are infected by certain insects. These insects pierce the plant leaves and when the egg hatches out into a larva the plant produces a gall which surrounds the larva.

Health Benefits of Tannic Acid

Tannic acid has anti-bacterial, anti-enzymatic and astringent properties. Tannic acid has constringing action upon mucous tissues such as tongue and inside of mouth. The ingestion of tannic acid caused constipation and can be used to treat diarrhoea (in the absence of fever or inflammation). The anti-oxidant and anti-mutagenic properties of tannic acid are beneficial.

Studies on Tannic Acid and cancer

However, tannic acid should not be used continuously or in high quantities ad it slows down the absorption of iron and possibly other trace minerals. A study by Afsana K et al entitled Reducing effect of ingesting tannic acid on the absorption of iron, but not of zinc, copper and manganese by rats. published by Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry (March 2004) concluded that the usual intake of polyphenols is relatively safe, but that a high intake by supplementation or by dietary habit of tannin affects only the iron level. Tannic acid can also reduce the effectiveness of digestive enzymes.

Phytosterols

(3beta)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol, 22:23-dihydrostigmasterol, alpha-dihydrofucosterol, cinchol, cupreol, rhamnol, quebrachol and sitosterin.

Beta-sitosterol is a phytosterols or plant sterol. The structure of beta-sitosterol is similar to that of cholesterol. Beta-sitosterol differs from cholesterol by the presence of an extra ethyl group.

There are many plant sources of beta-sitosterol, but the most important are wheat germ, rice bran, flax seeds, peanuts, soybeans, pumpkin seeds and corn oil. Muli and co-workers showed that a plant-based diet, rich in fibre, soy and flax seed, can increase serum levels of beta-sitosterol.

Health Benefits of Beta-Sitosterol

Beta-sitosterol is mainly known and used for its cholesterol lowering property. But studies have shown that the phytochemical may have other health benefits: easing symptoms of benign prostatic enlargement, reducing risk of cancer and prevention of oxidative damage through its antioxidant activity.

Anti-cancer

Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a protective role of beta-sitosterol in the development of some types of cancer such as breast, colon and prostate cancer. In-vivo studies have shown that the phytochemical inhibited proliferation and induce apoptosis in human solid tumors such as colon and breast cancers.

Beta-sitosterol is mainly studied for its cholesterol-lowering properties but many studies also find that the phytochemical may help to prevent cancer. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a protective role of beta-sitosterol in the development of some types of cancer such as breast, colon and prostate cancer. In-vivo studies have shown that the phytochemical inhibited proliferation and induce apoptosis in human solid tumors such as colon and breast cancers.

A Japanese study led by Imanaka demonstrated that the oral intake of beta-sitosterol, encapsulated in a liposome, was able to prevent tumour metastasis in rats, although the phytochemical was not absorbed in the serum. The researchers believed that beta-sitosterol works by stimulating the gut immune surveillance systems, as indicated by an increase in natural killer cell activity and production of immune response cytokines [1]. Park and co-workers concluded in their study that „beta-sitosterol potently induces apoptosis in U937 cells (these are leukemia cells) and that beta-sitosterol-induced apoptosis is related to the selective activation of caspase-3 and induction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.” Beta-sitosterol induced apoptosis in the leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner [2].

Beta-sitosterol seems to induce apoptosis of cancer cells through two pathways: the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, which are catalyzed by by the initiator caspases 8 and 9 respectively. Both pathways result in the activation of caspase 3, which is an effector caspases that cleaves protein substrates within the cell resulting in the apoptotic process. Korean study lead by Moon also found this effect of beta-sitosterol on caspase activation on cultured fibrosarcoma cells: treatment of the cells with an caspase-3 inhibitor inhibited the beta-sitosterol induced apoptosis. Treatment of the fibrosarcoma cells with beta-sitosterol also induced activation (phosphorylation) of extracellular-signal regulating kinase and blocked protein kinase B, which inhibits apoptotic processes [3]. Nakamura and co-workers found that beta-sitosterol restored the impaired gap junctional intercellular communication of transfected rat liver epithelial cells. The beta-sitosterol used in this experiment was extracted from the husks of psyllium seeds. Beta-sitosterol and also stigmasterol increased the level of gap junction proteins and restored their level of phosphorylation to levels similar to nontransfected cells [4].

Epidemiological evidence has shown that men consuming high amounts of plant products have a lower risk of prostate cancer. Von Holtz and colleagues investigated the possible effect of the plant sterol, beta-sitosterol, on cancer cells. They found that beta-sitosterol decreased the numbers of prostate cancer cells and increased apoptosis. Beta-sitosterol the production of ceramide, which is cellular signaling molecule regulating the differentiation, proliferation, programmed cell death and apoptosis of cells [5]. An in-vitro experiment with bone marrow cells showed that beta-sitosterol reduced the genotoxic damage caused by doxorubicin [6]. Beta-sitosterol significantly reduced the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges, which are exchange of genetic material between two identical sister chromatids. When the frequency of chromatid exchange is too high, cell damage can occur.

[1] Imanaka H, Koide H, Shimizu K, Asai T, Kinouchi Shimizu N, Ishikado A, Makino T, Oku N. ” Chemoprevention of tumor metastasis by liposomal beta-sitosterol intake” Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Mar;31(3):400-4.

[2] Park C, Moon DO, Rhu CH, Choi BT, Lee WH, Kim GY, Choi YH. ” Beta-sitosterol induces anti-proliferation and apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells through activation of caspase-3 and induction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.” Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Jul;30(7):1317-23.

[3] Moon DO, Lee KJ, Choi YH, Kim GY. „Beta-sitosterol-induced-apoptosis is mediated by the activation of ERK and the downregulation of Akt in MCA-102 murine fibrosarcoma cells.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Aug;7(8):1044-53.

[4] .Nakamura Y, Yoshikawa N, Hiroki I, Sato K, Ohtsuki K, Chang CC, Upham BL, Trosko JE. „Beta-sitosterol from psyllium seed husk (Plantago ovata Forsk) restores gap junctional intercellular communication in Ha-ras transfected rat liver cells.” Nutr Cancer. 2005;51(2):218-25.

[5]Von Holtz RL, Fink CS, Awad AB. ” beta-Sitosterol activates the sphingomyelin cycle and induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.” Nutr Cancer. 1998;32(1):8-12.

[6] Paniagua-Pérez R, Madrigal-Bujaidar E, Reyes-Cadena S, Alvarez-González I, Sánchez-Chapul L, Pérez-Gallaga J, Hernández N, Flores-Mondragón G, Velasco O. ” Cell protection induced by beta-sitosterol: inhibition of genotoxic damage, stimulation of lymphocyte production, and determination of its antioxidant capacity. ” Arch Toxicol. 2008 Feb 6.

The studies about the protective effect of beta-sitosterol on breast cancer only involved in-vitro experiments using cultured breast cancer cells. These studies clearly show that the phytochemicals kills breast cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cell. Clinical studies linking beta-sitosterol and breast cancer are still missing but some scientists suggest that it may improve the efficiency of tamoxifen, a drug often used to treat breast cancer.

School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffal investigated the effects of beta-sitosterol and tamoxifen on the cultured breast cancer cells. The study led by Awad concluded that „these results suggest that the combination regimen of dietary beta-sitosterol and tamoxifen chemotherapy may be beneficial in the management of breast cancer patients”[1]. Tamoxifen is drug used for the treatment of breast cancer and works as a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Therefore it only works on estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. They tested the effect of beta-sitosterol and tamoxifen, separately and combined, on the growth of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells. They found that a treatment with beta-sitosterol inhibited the growth of both type of cells whereas tamoxifen only inhibited of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. A combined treatment further inhibited the growth of both cell types. Both beta-sitosterol and tamoxifen modulated the ceramide metabolism. Ceramides act as a signaling molecule, regulating differentiation, proliferation, programmed cell death and apoptosis. Beta-sitosterol increased ceramide levels by stimulating ceramide production whereas tamoxifen tamoxifen increased ceramide levels by inhibting ceramide glycosylation.

A study conducted by the State University of New York concluded that beta-sitosterol is an effective apoptosis-promoting phytochemical and more dietary phytosterols may protect against breast cancer. The scientists studied the effect of beta-sitosterol on cultured breast cancer cells and adenocarcinoma cells. Beta-sitosterol concentrated in the cell membranes and significantly inhibited tumor cell growth. It increased the Fas levels and caspase-8 activity [2]. Beta-sitosterol seems to induce apoptosis of cancer cells through two pathways: the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, which are catalyzed by by the initiator caspases 8 and 9 respectively. Both pathways result in the activation of caspase 3, which is an effector caspases that cleaves protein substrates within the cell resulting in the apoptotic process. Awad and his team found that beta-sitosterol treatment of cultured breast cancer cells increased the activities of caspases 8 and 9 by 39% and 80% respectively, resulting in a a three-fold increase in the activity of caspase 3 [3].

In another in-vivo experiment conducted by Awad also showed that beta-sitosterol inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells by up to 80%, caused a six-fold increase in apoptosis cells but showed no cytotoxicity. The found no effect of beta-sitosterol on the level of protein phosphatase 2A in the tumor cells [4].

A study by Ju et al investigated the estrogenic effects of the plant sterols beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside and Moducare (mixture of beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside). The test was carried out on estrogen dependent human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The researchers concluded that beta-sitosterol and Moducare stimulated cancer cells in vitro and that dietary beta-sitosterol and Moducare protected against estrogen stimulated tumor growth. These findings suggest that beta-sitosterol could have potential benefits for women with a risk for estrogen-dependent breast cancer [5].

[1] Awad AB, Barta SL, Fink CS, Bradford PG. ” beta-Sitosterol enhances tamoxifen effectiveness on breast cancer cells by affecting ceramide metabolism.”Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Apr;52(4):419-26.

[2] Awad AB, Chinnam M, Fink CS, Bradford PG. ” beta-Sitosterol activates Fas signaling in human breast cancer cells.” Phytomedicine. 2007 Nov;14(11):747-54.

[3] Awad AB, Roy R, Fink CS. „Beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, induces apoptosis and activates key caspases in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. „Oncol Rep. 2003 Mar-Apr;10(2):497-500

[4] Awad AB, Downie AC, Fink CS. „Inhibition of growth and stimulation of apoptosis by beta-sitosterol treatment of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in culture.” Int J Mol Med. 2000 May;5(5):541-5.

[5] Ju YH, Clausen LM, Allred KF, Almada AL, Helferich WG. „Beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside, and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and beta-sitosterol glucoside modulate the growth of estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells in vitro and in ovariectomized athymic mice.” J. Nutr. 134: 1145-1151.

Antioxidant

Beta-sitosterol is an antioxidant able to reduce DNA damage, reduce the level of freeradical in our cells and to increase the level of typical antioxidant enzymes.

Atherosclerosis

Regular intake of beta-sitosterol may reduce blood cholesterol levels by directly inhibiting the absorption of cholesterol. Beta-sitosterol also prevents the oxidation of LDL cholesterol thereby reducing the risk of atherosclerosis.

Prostate enlargement

Clinical studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of beta-sitosterol in patients withprostate enlargement. The phytochemical decreases post-void residual urinary volume and increases urinary flow rate in these patients.

Saponins

Saponins are glucosides with foaming characteristics. Saponins consist of a polycyclic aglycones attached to one or more sugar side chains. The aglycone part, which is also called sapogenin, is either steroid (C27) or a triterpene (C30). The foaming ability of saponins is caused by the combination of a hydrophobic (fat-soluble) sapogenin and a hydrophilic (water-soluble) sugar part. Saponins have a bitter taste. Some saponins are toxic and are known as sapotoxin.

Saponins are phytochemicals which can be found in most vegetables, beans and herbs. The best known sources of saponins are peas, soybeans, and some herbs with names indicating foaming properties such as soapwort, saoproot, soapbark and soapberry. Commercial saponins are extracted mainly from Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria.

Health Benefits of Saponins

Saponinshave many health benefits. Studies have illustrated the beneficial effects on blood cholesterol levels, cancer, bone health and stimulation of the immune system. Most scientific studies investigate the effect of saponins from specific plant sources and the results cannot be applied to other saponins.

Cholesterol reduction

Saponins bind with bile salt and cholesterol in the intestinal tract. Bile salts form small micelles with cholesterol facilitating its absorption. Saponins cause a reduction of blood cholesterol by preventing its re-absorption.

Reduce cancer risk

Studies have shown that saponins have antitumor and anti-mutagenic activities and canlower the risk of human cancers, by preventing cancer cells from growing. Saponins seem to react with the cholesterol rich membranes of cancer cells, thereby limiting their growth and viability. Roa and colleagues found that saponins may help to prevent colon cancer and as shown in their article „Saponins as anti-carcinogens” published in The Journal of Nutrition (1995, 125, 717s-724S).

Antitumor activity of Pulsatilla koreana saponins and their structure-activity relationship. 

Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2005 November;53(11):1451-4

The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor properties of saponins from the root of Korean pasque flower (Pulsatilla koreana). The researchers measured the in-vitro cytotoxic activity against cultured human solid cancer cells and the in-vivo antitumor activity in mice bearing lung carcinoma. The saponins with a free acidic group at C-28 of aglycon showed moderate to considerable in-vitro cytotoxic activity. In the in-vivo test hederagenin saponins showed stronger antitumor effect than the taxol and doxorubicin saponins. The precense of a hederagenin aglycones and a special sugar sequence at C-3 are essential factors for the antitumor activity of saponins.

Protective effect of Astragalus corniculatus saponins against myeloid graffi tumor in hamsters.

Phytother Research. 2004 March;18(3):255-7

This study investigated the antitumor effect of a saponin rich extract from Astragalus corniculatus Bieb, a garden plant originating from Eastern European, against myeloid Graffi tumors in hamsters. The researchers found that an injection of extract in the peritoneal cavity decreased tumor transplantability, inhibited tumor growth in the early stages of tumor progression, increased survival time and reduced mortality. The study concluded that the saponin extract of Astragalus corniculatus should be further investigated as a antitumor treatment of myeloid Graffi tumour.

Protective effect of soybean saponins and major antioxidants against aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity and DNA-adduct formation. 

Journal of Medicinal Food. 2002 Winter;5(4):235-40.

Previous studies have suggested that saponins have possible anti-cancer effect. The main dietary sources of saponins are legumes, including soybeans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of soybean saponins mutagenic activity of aflatoxin B1 on Salmonella typhimurium and human liver cells. The anti-mutagenic effect of saponins was compared to those of other typical antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E including L-ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin A and butylated hydroxytoluene. The researchers found that the anti-mutagenic activity of saponins was between those of butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin E. Soybean saponins reduced the muitagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 up to 81%. The preincubation of human liver cells with saponins reduced the amount of DNA adducts significantly. The study concluded that soybean saponins possess a significant anti-mutagenic activity. More studies are required to determine the exact mechanism but soybean saponins seems to block the initial stages of carcinogenesis.

Environmental influences on isoflavones and saponins in soybeans and their role in colon cancer.

Journal of Nutrition. 2005 May;135(5):1239-42

Soybeans are not only an important source of high quality proteins but contain also health promoting phytochemicals such as isoflavones and saponins. The aim of this study was to quantify isoflavone and saponin levels in soybean cultivars grown under different conditions and to determine the influence of isoflavones and saponins on carcinogenic process of cultured human colon cancer cells. The researchers found an inhibitive effect of soy isoflavones and saponins on the colon cancer cells. There were no adverse effects of the intake of pure saponins on growth, organ weight or intestinal morphology, even when the diet contained 3% saponins. The study concluded that soy isoflavones and saponins may protect against colon cancer and are well tolerated.

Soy saponins and the anticancer effects of soybeans and soy-based foods. 

Current Medicinal Chemistry – Anti-Cancer Agents. 2004 May;4(3):263-72

There are indications that the consumption of soy products help to protect against cancer but the exact constituents, which are responsible for this action, remain elusive. The aim of this review was to summarize epidemiological studies linking saponins to cancer risk. Recents studies have shown that soy saponins have a direct effect on cancer cells but may also influence carcinogenesis in alternative mechanisms. The anti-cancer action of saponins may result in the discovery of new anticancer agents.

Soybean saponins suppress the release of proinflammatory mediators by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages.

Cancer Letters. 2005 December 18;230(2):219-27

Pro-inflammatory mediators play also a role in cancer development. Phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory properties may help to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soybean saponins on the production of proinflammatory mediators peritoneal macrophages stimulated with liposaccharides. The researchers found that soybean saponins reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory indicators such as cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthases and Nuclear Factor kappa B. The study concluded that soybean saponins may be useful for ameliorating inflammatory diseases and suppressing tumor progression.

Some studies have shown that saponins can cause apoptosis of leukemia cells by inducing mitotic arrest.

Cytotoxic and apoptogenic effect of tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) root extract (TRE) and two of its steroidal saponins TS1 and TS2 on human leukemic cell lines K562 and U937 and on cells of CML and ALL patients.

Leukemia Research. 2006 April;30(4):459-68

Not only tea leaves but also tea roots contain phytochemicals with potential health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer properties of tea root extract and two specific steroidal saponins found in the tea root on human cancer cells. The study showed that the tea root extract and the two steroidal saponins induced apoptosis of leukemia cells. Consumption of the tea root extract by healthy volunteers caused an insignificant reduction in cell count.

The mitotic-arresting and apoptosis-inducing effects of diosgenyl saponins on human leukemia cell lines.

Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2004 July;27(7):1059-65

Previous studies have shown that diosgenyl saponins could induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human leukemia cells. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms of action. The researchers found that diosgenyl saponins activated some caspases (caspases are essential in cells for apoptosis, one of the main types of programmed cell death) and down-regulated anti-apoptotic proteins. Dioscin treatment of leukemia cells inhibited cell mitosis. The study concluded that diosgenyl saponins may act by inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Diosgenyl saponins might be used antimitotic agents.

science.naturalnews.com/…/693_Cancer_chemopreventive_and_therapeutic_ effects_of_diosgenin_a_food_saponin.html
Food saponins have been used in complimentary and traditional medicine against a variety of diseases including several cancers. Diosgenin, a naturally 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2005340_Dimeric_antioxidant_and_cytotoxic_ triterpenoid_saponins_from_Terminalia_ivorensis_A.html
Dimeric antioxidant and cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from Terminalia ivorensis A.  and further for their Cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines.
science.naturalnews.com/…/432621_Chemical_and_pharmacological_studies _of_saponins_with_a_focus_on.html
It is believed that the ginseng saponins called ginsenosides are the major  and central Nervous system as well as the antidiabetes and anti-cancer effects.
science.naturalnews.com/…/270524_Cytotoxic_saponin_against_lung_cancer _cells_from_Dioscorea_birmanica_Prain.html
Cytotoxic saponin against lung cancer cells from Dioscorea birmanica Prain & Burkill.

Immunity booster

Plants produce saponins to fight infections by parasites. When ingested by humans, saponins also seem to help our immune system and to protect against viruses and bacteria.

Reduce bone loss

Studies with ovariectomized induced rats have shown that some saponins, such as the steroidal saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, a Chinese herb, have a protective role on bone loss.

Antioxidant

The non-sugar part of saponins have also a direct antioxidant acitivity, which may results in other benefits such as reduced risk of cancer and heart diseases.

Stilbenes:

What’s more, several recent animal-based studies and studies on human cells have found that pterostilbene may be effective for protection against breast cancerprostate cancer, andcolon cancer.

  • 2. RESVERATROL

Resveratrol is a flavonol belonging to the group of flavonoids.

Resveratrol is present in many plants and fruits, including red grapes, eucalyptus, spruce, blueberries, mulberries, peanuts, giant knotweed. Also red wine contains a lot of it. The longer the grape juice is fermented with the grape skins the higher the resveratrol content will be. It is produced by the plant as a defence against diseases.

Health Benefits of Resveratrol

Resveratrol is an antioxidant but its antioxidant properties are weaker that those of quercetin and epicatechin. It has anticancer properties and inhibits lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein and prevents the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL. Resveratrol also increases the activity of some antiretroviral drugs in vitro.

Antioxidant

In vitro studies have shown that resveratrol inhibits the oxidative damage caused by the heavy metal cadmium. The antioxidant activity of resveratrol reduces damage to endothelial cells exposed to nitrite radicals and protects skin cells against damage caused by UV radiation.

Anticancer

The antioxidant action of resveratrol helps to prevent damage to DNA but it also influences the transcriptions of genes responsible for redox metabolism and inhibits proliferartion of cancer cells. Resveratrol appears to decrease tumor promotion activity by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase-1, which converts arachidonic acid to substances that promote tumor growth. In vitro experiments provide support for resveratrol to serve as a candidate preventive agent against prostate cancer, but in vivo effects of resveratrol and the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on prostate cancer prevention remain largely unknown.

Resveratrol modulates mRNA transcripts of genes related to redox metabolism and cell proliferation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007 February;388(2):207-19

Previous studies have shown that phytochemical resveratrol has antioxidant properties and influences the cellular redox reactions in eukaryotic cells. The researchers investigated the effects of resveratrol on the transcription of genes and activity of enzymes involved with the redox metabolism and cell cycle regulation in lung cancer cells. They found that resveratrol significantly increased the transcription of glutathione peroxidase resulting in lower glutathione levels. Glutathione also increased the transcription of many genes involved in the cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. The researchers concluded that resveratrol increased the expression of genes responsible for cell survival, differentiation, proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Resveratrol may therefore have a chemopreventive and anticancer effect.

Effect of resveratrol and mixtures of resveratrol and mitomycin C on cancer cells under irradiation.

Anticancer Research. 2006 November-December;26(6B):4403-8

This study investigated the antitumor and radiation protective effects of resveratrol in combination with mitomycin-C, an antibiotic that is also used as chemotherapeutic agent because of its antitumour activity. The in-vitro tests were carried out on human breast cancer cells in aerated and anaerobic media. In the aerated media resveratrol showed anti-tumor and antioxidant activities, which were enhanced by mitomycin-C. Under anaerobic conditions, resveratrol acted as a radiation-protecting agent and at high concentration it stopped cell growth. The study concluded that resveratrol has both radiation protective and anticancer activity. Resveratrol acts by ejection of electrons and by reacting on primary radicals, such as hydroxyl radical.

Resveratrol Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation through Transcriptional Induction of Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1.

Journal of Surgical Research. 2007 January 24

Resveratrol is a phytochemical found in many mainly in red grape skins, mulberries and some nuts. Previous studies have shown that resveratrol has potential antitumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activities. It is known that macrophages produce a cytokine (MIC-1) which has antitumorigenic activity. The aim of this in-vitro study was to determine the effect resveratrol on the activity of MIC-1 and the regulation the growth of lines human pancreatic cancer cells. The researchers found that resveratrol upregulated the expression of the MIC-1 gene. When the cells were first treated with a transcriptional inhibitor the effect of resveratrol was reduced, confirming that resveratrol works expression of genes. The study concluded that resveratrol increases MIC-1 gene expression in pancreatic cancer cells.

Resveratrol inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and overcomes chemoresistance through downregulation of STAT3 and nuclear factor-{kappa}B-regulated antiapoptotic and cell survival gene products in human multiple myeloma cells.

Blood, 15 March 2007, Vol. 109, No. 6, pp. 2293-2302

This study investigated the effect of resveratrol, a phytochemical found in red grapes, red berries and peanuts on the growth of human multiple myeloma cells. Multiple myeloma is cancer of immune system cells in bone marrow. Bhardwaj and his colleagues found that resveratrol inhibited the proliferation of human multiple myeloma cell lines. Resveratrol also increased the apoptotic affect of bortezomib and thalidomide. They concluded that resveratrol may have a potential in the treatment of multiple myeloma cancer.

Resveratrol interferes with AKT activity and triggers apoptosis in human uterine cancer cells.

Molecular Cancer. 2006 October 17;5:45

Endometrial cancers (cancer of the lining of the uterus) are the most common gynecologic cancers in the Western world. Studies have shown that resveratrol, an anti-oxidant found in high quantities in red wine, has anticancer activity and acts by inhibiting the proliferation and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of resveratrol in six different endometrial cancer cell lines. The researchers found that resveratrol caused apoptosis apoptosis in five out of six uterine cancer cell lines and decreased cell proliferation. They found that resveratrol acts by regulating the cyclooxygenase expression.

Benefits for diabetes

Resveratrol may be benificial for diabetes. Administration of resveratrol may protect against oxidative damage caused by high glucose levels. It also reduces diabetic neuropathic pain.

Heart health

Resveratrol protects our heart and blood vessels by directly scavenging oxidants, which could cause oxidation of lipids, and by preventing apoptosis of endothelial cells. It may also help to prevent heart damage after a cardiac arrest. Reduced platelet aggregation has been attributes to resveratrol, thereby reducing the risk of atherosclerosis.

Increase of lifespan

Tests with animals have shown that that high food intake reduces lifespan. One study showed that resveratrol was able to able to increase the life span of mice on a high calorie diet.

Antitoxic

Many studies on animals have shown antitoxic effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol was able to reverse damages caused by the administration of the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin. Resveratrol also helped to reduce brain damage and oxidative damage of the liver during ethanol intoxication. It also reduced kidney damage of rats treated with the antibiotic gentamicin.

Facts about Resveratrol

Resveratrol explains partly the French Paradox: the low incidence of heart disease among French people, who eat relatively a lot of unhealthy fat but drink resveratrol containing red wine.

Research Reviews

Resveratrol Promotes Clearance of Alzheimer’s Disease 

Resveratrol Inhibits TNF-alpha?Induced Proliferation and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Resveratrol in cancer management

Studies on Resveratrol and cancer

Studies on Resveratrol and colon cancer  (MANY STUDIES) http://science.naturalnews.com/R/Resveratrol_and_colon_cancer.html

Studies on Resveratrol and ovarian cancer ( MANY STUDIES) http://science.naturalnews.com/R/Resveratrol_and_ovarian_cancer.html

Studies on Resveratrol and Anti-Tumor

Studies on Resveratrol and Apoptotic

Studies on Resveratrol and Chemotherapeutic

http://science.naturalnews.com/R/Resveratrol_and_Chemopreventive.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/R/Resveratrol_and_Antiproliferative.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/R/Resveratrol_and_Anti-Angiogenic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/R/Resveratrol_and_Apoptotic.html

Oxindole alkaloids:

Pteropodin, Specrofillin, Hystopteropodin, Uncaria F, Uncaria Tomentosa, Isomitrofillin, etc.

  1. Cytotoxic effect of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid mitraphylline 

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19724995

    Sep 1, 2009 – In this study, the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid mitraphylline was isolated  on human Ewing’s sarcoma MHH-ES-1 and breast cancer MT-3 cell 

  2. Cat’s Claw Oxindole Alkaloid Isomerization Induced by Cell 

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23975868

    Aug 23, 2013 – Cat’s Claw Oxindole Alkaloid Isomerization Induced by Cell Incubation and Cytotoxic Activity against T24 and RT4 Human Bladder Cancer Cell 

  3. Mitraphylline – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitraphylline

    „Cytotoxic effect of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid mitraphylline isolated from Uncaria tomentosa bark on human Ewing’s sarcoma and breast cancer cell lines” 

  4. Cat’s Claw – American Cancer Society

    Sep 12, 2011 – Thanks to American Cancer Society volunteers, cancer patients receive…. Cytotoxic effect of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid mitraphylline 

  5. Oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05907.x/pdf  Nov 9, 2005 – increasing survival rates amongst cancer patients. However, mutations purified oxindole alkaloids, namely isopteropodine (A1), pteropodine 
  6. cancer | Naturopathy by Savvas Ioannides N.D.

    naturalhealingcyprus.wordpress.com/tag/cancer/

    Jul 10, 2013 – Posts about cancer written by Naturopathy by Savvas Ioannides. minimal traces of immune-suppressing tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOAs) 

  7. Cat’s Claw: A Rainforest Herb Quells Inflammation, Supports  www

    .lef.org/magazine/mag2007/mar2007_nu_catsclaw_01.htm

    He improved remarkably, and one year later was apparently free of cancer of cat’s claw to compounds called oxindole alkaloids;1 more recently, however, 

    see this article Cat’s Claw click here

Styryl-lactones :

Altholactone, Goniothalamin,etc

Tannins:

A group of polyhenols; tannins are divided into 2 chemically distinct groups:

1) the condensed tannins (Proanthocyanidin)

2) the hydrolysable tannins (as hydrolysable Ellagitannins, such as Woodfordin C (macrocyclic ellagitannin dimmer), Oenotheietc.

NOTE: Anthocyanins: Peonidine-3-glucoside, Cyanidin-3-glucoside , etc.

see Tannic acid above

Terpenes:

Alisol B acetate, Atractylon, Atractylenolides, Betulinic acid, Bisabolol, Boswellic acid, Carnosic acid,

Ferutidin, Ferutinin, Myristicin, Oleanolic acid, Parthenolide, Pomolic acid, Tymoquinone, …etc…

See Myristicin,above

Vanillys-phenols :

a group of polyhenols; share structural similarities possessing both the vanillyl (4-hydroxy

3-methoxyphenyl) moiety and the ketone functional group in their structure; Paradols, Gingerols, Yakuchinone B,

Curcumin (diferuloyl methane), Capsaicin (homo-vanillic acid derivative : 8 methyl-N-Vanillyl-6-nonenamide),etc.

See  Capsaicin,above

  • Curcumin

Turmeric(cucurmin) : http://science.naturalnews.com/c/curcumin_and_cancer.html ,

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Curcumin_and_Anti-Angiogenic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Curcumin_and_Apoptotic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Curcumin_and_Antineoplastic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Curcumin_and_Chemopreventive.html

See also:

Ginger: http://science.naturalnews.com/G/Ginger_and_cancer.html

Cinnamon: http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Cinnamon_and_cancer.html

SPICES – more spices and herbs.plants in the book .

Triterpenoids

Malol, micromerol, urson, prunol, (3b)-3-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid

Ursolic acid is a is a pentacyclic triterpenoid.

Ursolic acid is present in many plants, including apples, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes.

Ursolic acid has medicinally action, both topically and internally. Ursolic acid is used in many cosmetic preparations for its anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antimicrobial properties.Ursolic acid has antibacterial and antifungal activity. Tests have shown that Ursolic acid inhibits the growth of Candida albicans and Microsporium lenosum.Ursolic acid has anti-inflammatory properties and is used in ointments to treat burns.Topical application of ursolic acid inhibited TPA-induced initiation and promotion of tumor growth.
science.naturalnews.com/U/Ursolic_Acid_and_cancer.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/U/Ursolic_Acid_and_Anti-Inflammatory.html important for preventing inflammation (i.e:used  in conjunction with CESIUM treatment)

http://science.naturalnews.com/U/Ursolic_Acid_and_Immune_system.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/U/Ursolic_Acid_and_Anti-Proliferative.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/U/Ursolic_Acid_and_Apoptotic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/U/Ursolic_Acid_and_Chemotherapeutic.html

Other Phytochemicals

Inositol-phosphate

In plants phytic acid is the principal store of phosphate. Phytic acid is a natural plant antioxidant.

Phytic acid can be found in most grains, seeds and beans. Rich sources of phytic acid are wheat bran and flaxseed (3 % phytic acid).

Health Benefits of Phytic acid

Phytic acid has been considered as an anti-nutritional component in cereals, seeds and beans. Research has traditionally focused on its structure that gives it the ability to bind minerals, proteins and starch, and the resulting lower absorption of these elements. However, resent research have shown that phytic acid has many health benefits. Phytic acid has antioxidant, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic effects.

Anticancer effect of phytic acid

In animal studies phytic acid showed a protective action in carcinogenesis. This action could be explained by its mineral chelating potential. Some studies suggest that phytic acid acts as anti-cancer agent by reversing the proliferative effects of carcinogens.

Cancer inhibition by inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol: from laboratory to clinic.

Journal of Nutrition. 2003 November;133:3778S-3784S.

Phytic acid seems only to affect cancer cells and not normal cells. Phytic acid and inositol improves the effectiveness of chemotherapy. More studies are required to determine optimal dosage, effectiveness and safety of phytic acid.

The biochemical changes associated with phytic Acid on induced breast proliferative lesions in rats: preliminary findings. 

Cancer Biology and Therapy. 2006 September;5(9):1129-33

Previous studies shown that phytic acid inhibits or prevents the growth of neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate if phytic acid has an effect on tumorigenesis by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting of oxidative stress. The in-vivo test was carried out on rats which were treated with the carcinogen dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). The researchers found that the administration of phytic removed the benign proliferative breast changes. Phytic acid significantly decreased trichostatin A and nitric oxide levels and increased apoptosis. The study concluded that the administration of phytic acid reversed the proliferative effects of the carcinogen DMBA, and could have a protective effect.

Interactive suppression of aberrant crypt foci induced by azoxymethane in rat colon by phytic acid and green tea. 

Carcinogenesis. 1997 October;18(10):2023-6

Epidemiological studies show a relation between diet and the incidence of colon cancer. Both phytic acid and phytochemicals in green tea seems to act as anticancer agents and have been linked wit reduced risk of cancer. The aim of this in vivo study with rats was to determine the possible synergistic effect of phytic acid and green tea on the inhibition of colonic preneoplastic lesions formations and the enzyme glutathione S-transferase. The rats were treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane and received different combinations of phytic acid and green tea. The researchers found that green tea alone had only marginal effect whereas phytic acid significantly reduced the incidence of aberrant crypt foci. The combination of phytic acid and green tea showed a significant and synergistic anticancer effect.

Protective effect of phytic acid on oxidative DNA damage with reference to cancer chemoprevention. 

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2001 November 2;288(3):552-7

According to K Midorikawa and colleagues, phytic acid is one of the most promising cancer chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was the determine the anticancer mechanism of phytic acid. They found that phytic acid inhibited the oxidative damage of hydrogen peroxide, but that phytic acid did not directly scavenge hydrogen peroxide. Phytic acid did not cause damage to DNA. They concluded that phytic acid acts as an antioxidant and anticancer agent by chelating metals.

Antitumor activity of phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) in murine transplanted and metastatic fibrosarcoma, a pilot study.

Cancer Letters. 1992 July 31;65(1):9-13

In vivo tests have shown that phytic acid exerts a antitumor effect on experimental colon cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of phytic acid on other experimental tumor models, such as murine fibrosarcoma. The researchers found that the intraperitoneal injection of mice with phytic acid reduced the growth of subcutaneously transplanted fibrosarcoma and prolonged survival. Phytic acid could have a potential use in the therapy of cancer.

science.naturalnews.com/P/phytic_acid_and_cancer.html
2008 Acta poloniae pharmaceutica
2008 Acta poloniae pharmaceutica
Anticarcinogenic efficacy of phytic acid extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.2010 Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie

Benificial for diabetic patients

Phytic acid may have health benefits for diabetes patients. It lowers blood glucose response by reducing the rate of starch digestion and slowing the gastric emptying.

Other effects

Phytic acid releases inositol that during digestion. Although inositol is not an essential nutrient it might reduce depressions. Studies also show that phytic acid may reduceinflammation.

Other things:

Melatonin( night sleep between 22 pm – 3am) -VERY IMPORTANT

www.naturalnews.com/033511_melatonin_cancer.html  – IMPORTANT article  ,

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/03/19/melatonin-benefits.aspx

 

1.  „Melatonin is a potent immune-enhancing hormone produced by the human pineal gland and appears to have substantial cancer-repelling power. In addition to boosting the activity of key immune cells called T helper cells, melatonin stimulates the tumor-killing action of natural killer cells (NK) by increasing the white blood cell production of the cytokine Interleukin-2 (IL-2) [Excerpt from the Definitive Guide to Cancer, by John Diamond, M.D. and Lee Cowden, M.D]

2.  „Researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH), led by Eva Schernhammer, MD, DrPH, (Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School) were among the first to report that nightshift workers may have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Decreased levels of melatonin – a hormone closely linked to sleep patterns – is believed to be a possible cause. Now, in the next phase of this research, Schernhammer reports that lower melatonin levels are associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. The findings are published in the July 20, 2005 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI). The hormone melatonin is typically released from the brain during the night. It is the reason people get sleepy. Nightshift workers, exposed to bright light during the evenings, produce less melatonin. Laboratory studies have shown that melatonin production can put tumor cells “to sleep” by stunting growth. A recent report indicated that in constant light, tumors grew seven times faster than they did in the dark. In this study, the researchers measured urinary melatonin in 147 women who developed invasive breast cancer and 291 matched women who did not develop breast cancer. They found that women with the lowest levels of the melatonin metabolite in their urine were 70 percent more likely to develop breast cancer.” [Press Release – Brigham and Women’s Hospital Research Unit]

3.  On October 17 2001, the Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Vol. 93, No. 20, pp. 1557-1568) published two papers reporting a significant increase in the risk of breast cancer among women who frequently did not sleep during the period of the night, about 1:30am, when melatonin levels are typically at their highest.

4.  Research presented recently at the 94th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research in Washington, D.C., shows evidence that the night-time production of the hormone melatonin (produced during deep sleep) inhibits the growth of human breast cancer by blocking the tumor’s uptake of dietary linoleic acid. [Bassett Research Institute – Preclinical Study supported by the National Cancer Institute]

5.  Studies at the University of Texas Medical Branch showed that „melatonin significantly increased the latency period of the tumor, by delaying the appearance of the tumor”.

6.  According to the University of Maryland Medical Center: „Women with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer tend to have lower levels of melatonin than those without the disease. Low levels of melatonin stimulate the growth of certain types of cancer cells and adding melatonin to these cells inhibits their growth. Meditation appears to be a valuable addition to the treatment of cancer due to a rise in levels of melatonin in the body.”

7.  According to the University of Massachusetts Medical Center: „Melatonin has been shown by a number of studies to significantly inhibit breast cancer in animals and tissue culture.” In a separate study performed at the University a higher level of melatonin was found in meditators than in non-meditators.

8.  According to the American Cancer Society: „A National Institute of Health panel found evidence that regular meditation can also reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome, and increase longevity and quality of life. The same study found that those who meditated had a better immune response than those who did not meditate.”

9.  „Melatonin can kill directly many different types of tumour cells. It is a naturally produced cytotoxin, which can induce tumor cell death (apoptosis). In instances where the tumour has already established itself in the body, melatonin has been shown to inhibit the tumour’s growth rate. Melatonin exhibits natural oncostatic activity and inhibits cancer cell growth. In patients in whom cancer has become a noticeable physical burden and produces overt symptoms, melatonin has been shown to alleviate numerous cancer symptoms and to inhibit development of new tumour blood vessels (tumour angiogenesis), which in turn inhibits the cancer from spreading further (mestastasis). Radiation therapy usually induces anemia. Melatonin stimulates platelet production and has been shown to effectively treat cancer patients with low platelet counts and anemia. Melatonin reduces chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, thrombocytopenia (reduced platelet counts), stomatitis (inflammation of mouth), and asthenia (weakness), and improves the overall response in cancer patients.” [Clinical Study, The Life Extension Foundation]

10.  “Results from a new study in laboratory mice show that night-time exposure to artificial light stimulated the growth of human breast tumors by suppressing the levels of a key hormone called melatonin. The study also showed that extended periods of night-time darkness greatly slowed the growth of these tumors.” [US Department of Health and Human Services – National Institute of Health]

11.  „Experienced meditators practicing either TM-Sidihi or another internationally well known form of yoga meditation showed significantly higher melatonin levels in the period following meditation.” [School of Psychology, La Trobe University, Australia]

 

 

Hyperthermia:

Scientific Publications

  • Bicher, James Haim, MD., Wolfstein, Ralf, M.D. Thermoradiotherapy with curative intent – breast, head and neck and prostate tumors. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie (German Journal of Oncology) 2006, 38: 116-122.
  • Bicher HI, McLaren JR, Pigliucci GM, (eds). Consensus on Hyperthermia for the 1990s.Clinical Practice in Cancer Treatment. Plenum Press, New York and London, 1990.
  • Bicher HI, Hetzel FW, Sandhu TS. Physiology and Morphology of Tumor Microcirculation on Hyperthermia. Chapter 9. Ed. K Storm, K Hall Publisher, New York, 1982.
  • Bicher HI, Hetzel FW, D’Agostino L, Johnson RJ. Changes in tumor tissue oxygenation induced by microwave hyperthermia. Int J. Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1977, S2:157.
  • Bicher HI, Hetzel FW, Mitagvaria N, O’hara M. Reoxygenation induced by localized microwave hyperthermia as an adjuvant to radiation therapy. 6th International Congress of Radiation Research, 1979, 5:171-175.
  • Bicher HI, Hetzel FW, Sandhu TS, Frinak S, Vaupel P, O’Hara MD, O’Brien T. Effects of hyperthermia on normal and tumor microenviroment. Radiology 1980, 137:523530.
  • James Haim Bicher, M.D. The physiological effects of hyperthermia. Radiology; 1980:511513.
  • Sandhu TS, Bicher HI, Hetzel FW. A thermal dosimetry system with blood flow simulation. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 6:361-363.
  • Bicher HI, Sandhu TS, Vaupel P, Hetzel FW. The effect of localized microwave hyperthermia on physiological responses. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 6:375-377.
  • Bicher HI, Sandhu TS, Hetzel FW. Inhomogenities in oxygen and pH distributions in tumors. Radiat Res 1980, 83376.
  • Hetzel FW, Kaufman N, Brown M, Bicher HI. Indirect sensitization by drug induced reoxygenation in spheroids. Radiat Res 1980, 83:375376.
  • Bicher HI, Sandhu TS, Vaupel P, Hetzel FW. Physiological mechanisms of action of localized microwave hyperthermia. Presented at the Third International Symposium on Cancer Therapy by Hyperthermia, Drugs and Radiation. Fort Collins, Colorado, June 1920, 1980.
  • Bicher HI, Sandhu TS, Hetzel FW, Matvia F. An effective fractionation protocol for the clinical use of hyperthermia with adjuvant radiation. Presented at the Second Meeting of the European Group on Hyperthermia in Radiation. Rome, Italy, September 1920, 1980.
  • Bicher HI, Vaupel P, O’Hara MD, O’Brien T, Mitagvaria N. Tissue oxygenation in normal and hyperthermic conditions. In proceedings of the XXVIIIth International Congress of Physiological Sciences. Budapest, Hungary, July 1318, 1980. Akademial Kiado Publishers: Adv. Physiol Sci. 1981, 25:215233.
  • Bicher HI, Hetzel FW, Vaupel P, Sandhu TS. Microcirculation modification by localized microwave hyperthermia and hematoporphyrin phototherapy. Bibl Anat 1981, 20:628632.
  • James Haim Bicher, M.D., Nodar Mitagvaria Circulatory responses of malignant tumors during hyperthermia. Microvascular Research 1981, 21:1926.
  • Bicher HI, Sandhu TS, Vaupel P, Hetzel FW. Effect of localized microwave hyperthermia on physiological responses. Natl Inst Drug Abuse Res Monogr Ser 1982, 61:217219.
  • Vaupel P, Frinak S, MuellerKlieser W, Bicher HI. Impact of localized hyperthermia on the cellular microenvironment in solid tumors. Natl Inst Drug Abuse Res Monogr Ser 1982, 61:207209.
  • Bicher HI. Impact of microcirculation and physiologic considerations on clinical hyperthermia. Proceedings 13th International Cancer Congress, 235245, Alan R Liss Inc., New York, 1983.
  • Bicher HI, Mitagvaria NP. Changes in tumor tissue oxygenation during microwave hyperthermia clinical relevance. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 180: 190905, 1985.
  • Mitagvaria NP, Bicher HI. Effect of microwave radiation on local blood flow and tissue oxygenation in the brain. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 98:895897, 1984.
  • Bicher HI, Shani J, Reesman KJ. Use of non perturbing thermocouples (NPT’s) for hyperthermia clinical thermometry. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 3:550551, 1987. (Abst) and J. Microwave power 22: 173, 1987, (Abst).
  • Bicher HI, Wolfstein RS. Local Hyperthermia of tumors at moderate depth using POPAS: Results by site (Abstract). 36th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society, 4:1621, 1988.
  • Bicher HI, Shani J, Reesman KJ. Use of nonperturbing thermocouple for clinical hyperthermia thermometry (Abstract). 36th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society, 4:1621, 1988.
  • Bicher HI, Wolfstein RS. Treatment of intratoracic lesions. Preliminary results (Abstract). 37th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society. 3:1823, 1989.
  • Bicher HI, Reesman KJ, Afuwape SA. A target triapplicator system with nonperturbing thermocouples thermometry. Hyperthermic Oncology 1988, Taylor and Francis, 1:778779, 1989.
  • Bicher HI, Mitagvaria, N. Oxygen and pH in Human Tumors During Hyperthermia (Abstract). Proceeding of the 1991 International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue Meeting (ISSOT). Willemstad, Curaco, Netherlands Antilles, August 24-30, 1991.
  • Mitagvaria, N., Bicher HI. Local Blood Flow and PO2 in Rat’s Brain During Maze Behavior (Abstract). Proceeding of the 1991 International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue Meeting (ISSOT). Willemstad, Curaco, Netherlands Antilles, August 24-30, 1991.
  • Bicher HI, Wolfstein RS. Transcranial Treatment of Brain Tumors with Microwave Hyperthermia (Abstract). Proceeding of the 8th Annual Conference of the American Society for Clinical Hyperthermic Oncology (ASCHO). Chicago, Illinois, October 31-November 2, 1991.
  • Bicher HI, Mitagvaria N. Oxygen and pH in Human Tumors During Hyperthermia (Paper presented as a poster). Proceeding of the 6th International Congress on Hyperthermic Oncology. Tucson, Arizona, April 26- May 1, 1992.
  • Surowiec, A. Bicher HI, Caridad, C. A Comparison of Heating Characteristics of Two Hyperthermia Systems Used for Deep Seated Malignancies BSD-2000 and Tripas (Abstract). Proceeding of the 16th International Symposium on Clinical Hyperthermia (ISCHO). Kyoto, Japan, June 13-16, 1993.
  • Bicher HI, Yarmonenko S, Wainson A, Swrowiec I, Metagvaria N. Specific inhibition of L-Glucose cell proliferation. Potentiation of Hyperthermia, Radiation and Chemotherapy effects (Abstract). Proceeding of the 10th Annual Meeting of the American Society Of Clinical Hyperthermic Oncology (ASCHO). Memphis, Tennessee; November 28-30, 1993.
  • Surowiec, A, Bicher HI, Intercomparison of Heating Patterns of the BSD-2000 and the Tripas System (Abstract). Proceeding of the 14th Annual Meeting of the North American Hyperthermia Society (NAHS), Nashville, Tennessee, April 29- May 4, 1994.
  • Bicher HI, Yarmonenko, S. Wainson, A. Surowiec, I. Mitagvaria, N. Anticancer Effect of L-Glucose In-Vivo Potentiation of Hyperthermia (Abstract). Proceeding of the 17th International Symposium on Clinical Hyperthermia (ISCH). Pavia, Italy, May 1-5, 1994.
  • Bicher HI MD., Eva H. Barker, Patrick J. Bolan, Lance delabarre, Hellmuth Merkle, Lenore I. Everson, Michael Garwood. In VIVO Monitoring to Treatment for Breast Cancer Using 4T H MRS. Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, 2021 Sixth street SE, Minneapolis, MN. USA;
  • H. Bicher, Mitagvaria, I. Kvachadze , T. Khetsuriani, A. Shukakidze, I. Lazrishvili, M. Arabuli, TS.T. Khomeriki, Main factors in development of local hyperthermia-induced morphological changes in cerebral tissue of the rat In Press, Proceedings of Tbilisi State Medical University.

Resources

Here are part of the extended bibliography and enormous amount of studies that exist about natural substances and their effective effect against cancer( I say part as most of them are cited from NaturalNews website, website I also write for; fpr example, see my article on scientific studies on chemo/radiation: http://blogs.naturalnews.com/should-one-use-conventional-cancer-treatments-chemotheraphy-or-radiation/)

NOTEs:

1.Take your nutrients from ORGANIC WHOLE FOODS rather than supplements

2.The impoverishment of vitamin and pro-vitamin complexes no longer present in food, with the consequent increase in degenerative and deficient diseases such as cancer. The deliberate attempt to deactivate the natural substances contained in the plants is very serious: in this way fresh fruit and vegetables – greatly impoverished of many vitamins – can be carried over long distances and long periods of time because their oxidation does not take place.This vitamin impoverishment will ensure commercial

profits and represents a serious act of deliberate damage inflicted on the Ecosystem by means of GMOs.

It’s heavy the possible disappearance of anti-cancer vitamins, that induce apoptosis (suicide) of the

tumors (Anthocyanin, Flavonoids (1122), Polyphenols (1123), sesquiterpene lactone Parthenolide (701), penta-acetyl

Geniposide (1061), Camelliin B (698), beta-Cryptoxantin (1063), Hesperidin (1063), Emodin (247,333,715), ursolic acid (700),

allyl Sulfur (694,696), Eriodictoyol (693), hibiscus protocatechin acid (692), Indoles (809), Isothiocyanates (809), Resverarol

(695), Elemene (690), Acutiaporberine (711), Capsaicin (719), Wagonin (713), Fisetin (713), carnosic acid (1062), Germanium

sesquioxide (269), epigallocatechin Gallate (173,1124), Axerophthol palmitate, alpha and beta Carotene, trans-Retinoic acid,

Tocopherols, Limonene (693), Cynaropicrin, Lycopene (633,1359), Proanthocyanidin, Damnacanthal (1043), Baicalin (718),

Baicalein (718), hydrocinnamic acid (693), sesquiterpenoids as Atractylon (704), as Atractylenolides I, II, III (704),

gelsemium alkaloids (699), tartary buckwheat flavonoid (1064), Sinigrin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, cumarinic acid, …)

SEE: http://www.erbeofficinali/dati/nacci/allpdf.php

The disappearance of these natural anti-cancer vitamins is a grave threat.

See also a FREE EBOOK detailing Thousand Plants against Cancer without Chemo-Therapy ,May 2010 ,650 pages

EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE:  2,050 official scientific publications ,2,100 various bibliographical references BONUS in my book, next to other 4 free ebooks(Dr. W .Kelley Dr. Binzel, Dr. Matias Rath , Johanna Brandt. )

In this book the plants are identified by their Latin names – according to the modern scientific classification (see Chapter 20)

– and 2,050 official scientific publications are quoted (out of 2,100 various bibliographical references (see Chapter 21), useful to in depth studies, which confirm the various arguments indicated there.

<<PREVIOUS PAGE                          NEXT PAGE>>

Scientific Studies DATABASE PAGE 6

CLICK AICI pentru  limba ROmana (DACA nu e deja tradusa)

 

PAGE 6 CONTENTS:

  • Hydroxycinnamic Acids
    • Chicoric acid
    • Coumarin
    • Ferulic acid

  • Isoprenoides :Abscisic acid, Acorenone, Alloaromadendrene, Aromadendrene, Bergamotene, Bisabolene,Borneol, Bornyl acetate, Isoborneol, Cadinene, Camphene, Caranol, Carene, Carvacrol, Carvone,Pinocarvone, Caryophyllene, Cedrine, Cineole, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamate, Citral,Cinnamaldehyde, Cyclocitral, Citronella, Citronellyl acetate or butyrate or propionate, Copaene, Cresol, Cubebene, Cymene, Damascenone,Elemene, Estragol, Eugenol, Farnesene, Fencone, Geraniol, Germacrene, Hotrienol, Humulene, Ionol, Ionone, Isopinocamphone, Isopulegol, Linalool, Longifolene, Mentol, Neomenthol, Menthone, Isomenthone, Murolene, Myrcenol, Myrcene, Myrtenol, Neral, Nerol, Nerolidol, Nootkatone, Ocimene, Ocimenol, Perillaldehyde, Phellandrene, Pinene, Pinocamphone, Piperitol,Piperitone, Pristane, Pulegone, Sabinene, Sabinol, Santalol, Selinadiene, Selinene, Sinensal, Styrene, Terpinene, Terpineol, Terpinolene, Thymol, Tricyclene, Vanillin, Valencene,
  • Lecithins 
  • Lignans (Silymarin)
  • Monophenols 
  •              Hydroxytyrosol
  • Monoterpenes
    • Geraniol
    • Limonene
  • Organosulfides
    • Allicin
    • Glutathione
    • Indole-3-Carbinol & Di-Indole Methane
    • Isothiocyanates
    • Sulforaphane
  • Phenolic Acids
    • Capsaicin
    • Ellagic acid
    • Galic Acid
    • Rosmarinic acid
    • Tannic Acid
  • Phytosterols
    • Beta-Sitosterol
  • Saponins
  • Stilbenes: 1. Pterostilbene 2. RESVERATROL
  • Oxindole alkaloids
  • Styryl-lactones : Altholactone, Goniothalamin,etc
  • Tannins:
  • 1) the condensed tannins (Proanthocyanidin)
  • 2) the hydrolysable tannins (as hydrolysable Ellagitannins, such as Woodfordin C (macrocyclic ellagitannin dimmer), Oenotheietc.Anthocyanins: Peonidine-3-glucoside, Cyanidin-3-glucoside , etc.
  • Terpenes:  Alisol B acetate, Atractylon, Atractylenolides, Betulinic acid, Bisabolol, Boswellic acid, Carnosic acid,Ferutidin, Ferutinin, Myristicin, Oleanolic acid, Parthenolide, Pomolic acid, Tymoquinone, …etc…
  • Vanillys-phenols : Paradols, Gingerols, Yakuchinone B, Curcumin (diferuloyl methane), Capsaicin (homo-vanillic acid derivative : 8 methyl-N-Vanillyl-6-nonenamide),etc. Curcumin
  • Triterpenoids :
  • Ursolic acid
  • Other Phytochemicals
    • Damnacanthal
    • Digoxin
    • Phytic acid
  • Other things: melatonin

Hydroxycinnamic Acids

Dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid

Chicoric acid is a caffeic acid derivative, belonging to the group of polypfenols.
science.naturalnews.com/C/Caffeic_Acid_and_cancer.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Caffeic_Acid_and_Anticarcinogenic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Caffeic_Acid_and_Chemotherapeutic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Caffeic_Acid_and_Anti-Angiogenic.html

Chicoric acid is the most active compound in Echinacea pupurea. Chicoric acid is very stable in dry conditions but can be broken down by enzymes, which are found in the Echinacea, in moist conditions.

  • DistributionChicoric is only found in Echinacea purpurea.Health Benefits of Chicoric acidChicoric acid makes our immune cells more efficient in attacking intruders. In vivo en vitro studies have shown that chicoric acid promotes phagocytosis. This is the process whereby white blood cells and lymphocytes attack and destroy pathogens. Chicoric acid stimulates T-cell activation, stimulates healing of wounds and reduces the inflammation in arthritis. Chicoric acid increases the production of interferon, immunoglobulin and other chemicals important for the immune system.Studies have indicated that chicoric acid can inhibit the penetration of viruses in cells.Chicoric acid also acts as an antioxidant by preventing the oxidation of collagen and cells.

1,2-Benzopyrone, 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one

Coumarin is a phytochemical with a vanilla like flavour. Coumarin is a oxygen heterocycle. Coumarin can occur either free or combined with the sugar glucose (coumarin glycoside).

Distribution

Coumarin is found in several plants, including tonka beans, lavender, licorice, strawberries, apricots, cherries, cinnamon, and sweet clover. 

Health Benefits of Coumarin

Coumarin has blood-thinning, anti-fungicidal and anti-tumor activities.

science.naturalnews.com/C/Coumarin_and_cancer.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Coumarin_and_Antimitotic.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Coumarin_and_Antiproliferative.html

http://science.naturalnews.com/C/Coumarin_and_Apoptotic.html

Coumarin should not be taken while using anticoagulants. Coumarin increases the blood flow in the veins and decreases capillary permeability. Coumarin can be toxic when used at high doses for a long period

Facts about Coumarin

Coumarin seems to work as a pesticide in the plants that produce it. Coumarin is responsible for the sweet smell of new mown hay.

 

4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid

Pure ferulic acid is a yellowish powder. Ferulic acid belong to the family of hydroxycinnamic acid. The chemical structure of ferulic acid is very similar to that of curcumin.

The phytochemical ferulic acid is found in the leaves and seeds of many plants, but especially in cereals such as brown rice, whole wheat and oats. Ferulic acid is also present in coffee, apple, artichoke, peanut, orange and pineapple.

Health Benefits of Ferulic acid

Ferulic acid is an antioxidant which neutralizes free radicals (superoxide, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical) which could cause oxidative damage of cell membranes and DNA. Ferulic acid helps to prevent damage to our cells caused by ultraviolet light. Exposure to ultraviolet light actually increases the antioxidant potency of ferulic acid.

science.naturalnews.com/…/88169_Protective_effects_of_a_topical_ antioxidant_mixture_containing_vitamin_C.html
 ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet induced photodamage in human skin. and chronic reactions, including premature skin aging and skin cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/…/2559062_Protective_effect_of_ferulic_acid_on_ nicotine_induced_DNA_damage.html
Protective effect of ferulic acid on nicotine induced DNA damage and cellular  smoke and plays an important etiological role in the development of lung cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/F/Ferulic_acid_and_Inflammatory.html
FA15, a hydrophobic derivative of ferulic acid, suppresses Inflammatory responses and skin tumor promotion: comparison with ferulic acid. 2002 Cancer letters
science.naturalnews.com/…/875229_Ferulic_acid_augments_angiogenesis_ via_VEGF_PDGF_and_HIF_1.html
Ferulic acid augments angiogenesis via VEGF, PDGF and HIF 1 alpha.  broad range of therapeutic effects on human diseases, including diabetes and cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1973049_Actions_of_ferulic_acid_and_vitamin_ E_on_prevention_of.html
Actions of ferulic acid and vitamin E on prevention of hypercholesterolemia and atherogenic lesion  Vitamin D is nutritional key for prevention of breast cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/…/2144597_Protective_effect_of_ferulic_acid_on_ 712_dimethylbenzaanthracene_induced_skin.html
Protective effect of ferulic acid on 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss  List of Cancer-Causing Agents Grows (press release).

Ferulic acid is often added as ingredient of anti-aging supplements. Studies have shown that ferulic acid can decrease blood glucose levels and can be of help to diabetes patients.Ferulic acid seems to protect against cancer, bone degeneration, menopausal symptoms (hot flushes). Like many other antioxidants, ferulic acid reduces the level of cholesterol and triglyceride, thereby reducing the risk of hearth disease. Ferulic acid seems to reduce the risk of many cancers, including cancer of the stomach, colon, breast, prostate, liver, lung and tongue. A study by W Kuenzig et all Caffeic and ferulic acid as blockers of nitrosamine formation published in Carcinogenesis (Vol 5, 1984) showed that dietary caffeic acid and ferulic acid may play a role in the body’s defence against carcinogenesis by inhibiting the formation of N- nitroso compounds.

Ferulic acid can be converted into the flavour vanillin by biochemical reaction.

Isoprenoides :

Abscisic acid, Acorenone, Alloaromadendrene, Aromadendrene, Bergamotene, Bisabolene,Borneol, Bornyl acetate, Isoborneol, Cadinene, Camphene, Caranol, Carene, Carvacrol, Carvone,Pinocarvone, Caryophyllene, Cedrine, Cineole, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamate, Citral,Cinnamaldehyde, Cyclocitral, Citronella, Citronellyl acetate or butyrate or propionate, Copaene, Cresol, Cubebene, Cymene, Damascenone,Elemene, Estragol, Eugenol, Farnesene, Fencone, Geraniol, Germacrene, Hotrienol, Humulene, Ionol, Ionone, Isopinocamphone, Isopulegol, Linalool, Longifolene, Mentol, Neomenthol, Menthone, Isomenthone, Murolene, Myrcenol, Myrcene, Myrtenol, Neral, Nerol, Nerolidol, Nootkatone, Ocimene, Ocimenol, Perillaldehyde, Phellandrene, Pinene, Pinocamphone, Piperitol,Piperitone, Pristane, Pulegone, Sabinene, Sabinol, Santalol, Selinadiene, Selinene, Sinensal, Styrene, Terpinene, Terpineol, Terpinolene, Thymol, Tricyclene, Vanillin, Valencene, Verbenone, Vitispirane, etc.

  • Cinnamaldehyde

Sources:Cinnamon

science.naturalnews.com/…/188629_Allyl_isothiocyanates_and_ cinnamaldehyde_potentiate_miniature_excitatory_postsynaptic_inp…
 Cancer Pathophysiology Division, National Cancer Center Reseach Institute,  Allyl Isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde are pungent compounds 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1769088_Growth_inhibition_of_human_colon_ cancer_cells_by_plant_compounds.html
CONCLUSION : Cinnamaldehyde, piperine, and resveratrol offer significant in vitro anti-proliferative effects on cultured human colon cancer cells. While each 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1499711_Coumarin_and_cinnamaldehyde_in_ cinnamon_marketed_in_Italy_a_natural.html
Coumarin and cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon marketed in Italy: a natural  The Cure in the Kitchen: Honey and Cinnamon can Cure Cancer and Arthritis.

  • Elemene

Sources: (Curcuma zedoaria and another plants)

A significant effect on the treatment of glioma was reported using Elemene which is found in small

amounts in many essential oils: it prolonged quality survival time of 40 patients with glioma (1574)

(Tan P.: Clinical study on treatment of 40 cases of malignant brain tumor by Elemene emulsion injection, Chin. J.

Integ. Trad. Western Med, 20, pp.: 645-648, 2000) http://www.mednat.org/cancro/cancro_cervello.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of elemene emulsion injection (EEI) in treating malignant brain tumor.

METHODS: By conducting a retrospective study of 40 patients with brain tumor, 29 of malignant glioma and 11 metastatic tumor, who were treated with EEI from January 1994 to May 1998. EEI 0.4-1.2 g/d was given to each patient by intravenous dripping or/and intravenous infusion by pumps, and directly injected into carotid artery or infused through a carotid artery catheter with pumps. The total dosage of 6-12 g was given in 2-6 therapeutic courses with an interval of 1-1.5 months between courses. The effectiveness of treatment was accessed according to the changes of tumor size, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and survival time of patients. The control group consisted of 29 cases of malignant brain tumor (22 of primary and 7 of metastatic) was treated with chemotherapy 2-3 therapeutic courses with an interval of 1-1.5 months between them.

RESULTS:

(1) In the EEI treated group the mean tumor size was changed from 6.70 cm3 (before treatment) to 2.67 cm3 (after treatment), t = 3.02, P < 0.01, it was reduced by 61%;

(2) In the EEI treated group 4 cases was CR, 26 PR, the total effective rate being 75.0% (95% credibility interval +/- 13.4%), while in the control group, 2 of CR, 10 PR, and the total effective rate 41.4% (95% credibility interval +/- 17.9%), the difference between the two groups was significant, chi 2 = 3.867, P < 0.05;

(3) KPS decreased in the EEI group from 94.7 scores (before treatment) to 88.2 scores (after treatment), the decrement was 6.5 scores (t = 3.5313, P < 0.01); (4) The survival time in the EEI treated group was 25.4 months, and that in the control group was 17.4 months (t = 3.74, P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Elemene has significant effect on treatment of malignant brain tumor. It could prolong the high quality survival time of patients and is worthy of further investigation.

Elemene , induced apoptosis in leukaemia (1409).

http://www.erbeofficinali.org/dati/nacci/studi/elemene_zedoaria_provoca_apoptosi_nella_leucemia.pdf

  • Eugenol

science.naturalnews.com/E/Eugenol_and_cancer.html
science.naturalnews.com/E/Eugenol_and_Apoptotic.html
2007 Molecular cancer. Pro-apoptotic effect of the landrace Bangla Mahoba of Piper betle on Leishmania donovani may be due to the high content of eugenol.
  • Limonene(see below)

Lecithins :

science.naturalnews.com/L/Lecithin_and_cancer.html
science.naturalnews.com/…/2237506_Oral_carcinogenesis_induced_by_4_ nitroquinoline_1_oxide_in_lecithinretinol.html
Oral carcinogenesis induced by 4 nitroquinoline 1 oxide in lecithin:retinol  induced a higher incidence of oral cancer in LRAT knockout (LRAT(-/-)) than in 

Lignans

  1. How lignans fight cancer? – NutraPro Internationalnutraprointl.com/2009/12/25/how-lignans-fight-cancer/‎ Lignans are being studied for possible use in cancer prevention, particularly breast cancerLignans acts as anticancer compounds by blocking 
  2. Breast Cancer Survival and Lignan Intake | NutritionFacts.org

    nutritionfacts.org › Videos

    One teaspoon of flax seeds may double one’s daily production of lignans, phytonutrients that appear to play a role in both breast cancer prevention and survival.

  3. Lignans – Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State Universitylpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/lignans/Lignan-rich foods are part of a healthful dietary pattern, but the role of lignans in the prevention of hormone-associated cancers, osteoporosis 
  4. PUBMED Dietary lignans: potential role in cancer prevention.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15860433‎Dietary lignans: potential role in cancer prevention. Webb AL, McCullough ML. Graduate Program in Nutrition and Health 
  5. Dietary intakes of total and specific lignans are associated with http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113872‎ – Dietary lignans may affect breast cancer by modifying tumor characteristics likely to affect prognosis. We investigated usual dietary intakes of 
  6. Fighting breast cancer with flaxseeds : Disease Proofhttp://www.diseaseproof.com › Breast Cancer‎- Anti-cancer effects of lignans. Enterolignans are structurally similar to estrogen and can bind to estrogen receptors – this capability allows 
  7. Higher lignan levels improve breast cancer survival – Life Extension http://www.lef.org/…/0920_Higher-Lignan-Levels-Improve-Breast-Cancer-Sur…‎ In an article published online on September 6, 2011 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, German researchers report that having high serum 
  8. Dietary Lignan Intake and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk by 

    jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/99/6/475‎ Studies conducted in Asian populations have suggested that high consumption of soy-based foods that are rich in isoflavone phytoestrogens is 

science.naturalnews.com/…/2632135_Estrogenic_activities_of_sesame_ lignans_and_their_metabolites_on_human.html
Estrogenic activities of sesame lignans and their metabolites on human breast cancercells. Publication: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Publication 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2602942_Cytostatic_inhibition_of_cancer_cell_ growth_by_lignan_secoisolariciresinol_diglucoside.html
Cytostatic inhibition of cancer cell growth by lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1558789_Spirocyclic_Lignans_from_Guaiacum_ Zygophyllaceae_Induce_Apoptosis_in_Human_Breast.html
Spirocyclic Lignans from Guaiacum (Zygophyllaceae) Induce Apoptosis in Human BreastCancer Cell Lines. Publication: Journal of natural products. Publication 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1311157_Extraction_of_lignans_from_flaxseed_ and_evaluation_of_their_biological.html
Our results show that lignans modulate development of breast cancer cells. The most intense effect was observed for anhydrosecoisolariciresinol, which 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1478913_Vitexins_nature_derived_lignan_ compounds_induce_apoptosis_and_suppress_tumor.html
Vitexins, nature derived lignan compounds, induce apoptosis and suppress tumor growth. Publication: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2157407_Inhibition_of_Akt_signaling_by_the_ lignan_matairesinol_sensitizes_prostate.html
Dietary lignans have shown cancer preventive and antitumorigenic activity, but the mechanisms behind these effects are poorly known. Here we observed that of  
science.naturalnews.com/…/1938497_The_effects_of_different_lignans_and _isoflavones_tested_as_aglycones.html
PURPOSE: Phytooestrogens are known to cause anti-cancer effects on mamma carcinoma cells. In this study, the effects of the lignan Secoisolariciresinol and 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2445678_Enterolactone_and_breast_cancer_ methodological_issues_may_contribute_to_conflicting.html
Enterolactone and breast cancer: methodological issues may contribute to conflicting Lignans found in plant foods are converted by the intestinal microflora to 

Lignans sources

Flaxseeds 1 oz
85.5
Sesame seeds 1 oz
11.2
Curly kale ½ cup, chopped
0.8
Broccoli ½ cup, chopped
0.6
Apricots ½ cup, sliced
0.4
Cabbage ½ cup, chopped
0.3
Brussels sprouts ½ cup, chopped
0.3
Strawberries ½ cup
0.2
Tofu ¼ block (4 oz)
0.2
Dark rye bread 1 slice
0.1

  • Silymarin

science.naturalnews.com/S/Silymarin_and_cancer.html
science.naturalnews.com/S/Silymarin_and_prostate_cancer.html
Identifying the differential effects of Silymarin constituents on cell growth and cell cycle regulatory molecules in human prostate cancer cells. 2008 International 

SOURCES :Milk thistle

See this article on milk Thistle click here

Monophenols

Hydroxytyrosol is believed to be the antioxidant with the highest free radical scavenging capacity: double that of quercetin and more than 3 times that of epicatechin.
Hydroxytyrosol is the main polyphenol found in olives.

The wastewaters generated during olive processing contain a high levels hydroxytyrosol, most of which can be recovered to produce hidroxytyrosol extracts. Studies by Visioli et al (2000) showed that a low dose of hydroxytyrosol reduces the consequences of sidestream smoke-induced oxidative stress in rats.

Health Benefits of Hydroxytyrosol

Hydroxytyrosol has the same health promoting properties than other polyphenols: prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of intestinal and respiratory health and prevention of cancer. Hydroxytyrosol also reduces the oxidative stress caused by smoking.

Abstracts

Benefits of Hydroxytyrosol

In Vivo Studies about Antioxidant Properties of Hydroxytyrosol

In Vitro Studies about Antioxidant Properties of Hydroxytyrosol

Cancer and Hydroxystyrosol

Cancer chemoprevention by hydroxytyrosol isolated from virgin olive oil through G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2002 August;11(4):351-8Epidemiologic studies and animal studies show that olive oil may reduce the risk of several diseases such as cancer and heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the main polyphenol in virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol, on tumor growth. The in vitro test were carried out in human colon cancer and leukemia cell lines. They found that hydroxytyrosol inhibited proliferation of both cancer cell lines. human promyelocytic leukaemia cells HL60 and colon adenocarcinoma cells HT29 and HT29 clone 19A. Hydroxytyrosol induced cell apoptosis and reduced cancer cell proliferation was reduced up to 50 percent. Hydroxytyrosol caused no such effects on non-cancer human cells, such as lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. The study concluded that hydroxytyrosol may protect against cancer by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.
Hydroxytyrosol, a natural molecule occurring in olive oil, induces cytochrome c-dependent apoptosisBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2000 November 30;278(3):733-9Hydroxytyrosol is a natural phenolic antioxidant found in olive oil. It has many claimed biological and pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroxytyrosol on the proliferation and survival of a leukemia cell line. The researchers found that hydroxytyrosol caused a complete arrest of leukemia cell proliferation and even induced apoptosis. This apoptotic effect was not observed with tyrosol, suggesting that presence of two ortho-hydroxyl groups is required. The study concluded that hydroxytyrosol reduces the immunological response, resulting in antinflammatory and chemopreventive effects.
science.naturalnews.com/…/2378205_Oleuropein_and_hydroxytyrosol_ inhibit_MCF_7_breast_cancer_cell_proliferation.html
Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibit MCF 7 breast cancer cell proliferation interfering with ERK1 2 activation.
science.naturalnews.com/…/606773_Anti_proliferative_and_apoptotic_ effects_of_oleuropein_and_hydroxytyrosol_on.html
In this study, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, major phenolic compound of olive oil, was studied for its effects on growth in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells 
science.naturalnews.com/Hydroxytyrosol.html
Aug 15, 2013  The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol on human breast cancerMCF-7 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2577390_Hydroxytyrosol_inhibits_growth_and_ cell_proliferation_and_promotes_high_expression.html
The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time in an animal model of experimental mammary carcinoma, the anti-cancer ability of Hydroxytyrosoland to 
science.naturalnews.com/…/2561646_Synthesis_of_a_novel_ester_of_ hydroxytyrosol_and_a_lipoic.html
Synthesis of a novel ester of hydroxytyrosol and a lipoic acid exhibiting an antiproliferative effect on human colon cancer HT 29 cells.
science.naturalnews.com/…/945006_Hydroxytyrosol_from_laboratory_ investigations_to_future_clinical_trials.html
Hydroxytyrosol: from laboratory investigations to future clinical trials.  lower rates of mortality from Cardiovascular disease and cancer than Northern European 
science.naturalnews.com/…/1518292_Hydroxytyrosol_inhibits_the_ proliferation_of_human_colon_adenocarcinoma_cells_through.htm…
Hydroxytyrosol inhibits the proliferation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells  many pathological processes, including the development of colon cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/Hydroxytyrosol_2.html
Aug 15, 2013  Hydroxytyrosol studies.  Neuroprotective effect ofhydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol acetate in rat brain slices subjected breast cancer (27)
science.naturalnews.com/…/1150773_A_concise_synthesis_of_glucuronide_ metabolites_of_urolithin_B_resveratrol.html
Finally, three O-beta-D-glucuronides of hydroxytyrosol 6, 7, and 8 have been  Has Anti-aging and Anti-Cancer Properties, Linked to Cardiovascular Health.
science.naturalnews.com/…/1423703_Protective_effect_of_hydroxytyrosol_ and_tyrosol_against_oxidative_stress_in.html
Protective effect of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol against oxidative stress in kidney cells. New Study Finds Olive Oil Effective against HER-2 Breast Cancer.
science.naturalnews.com/…/2501663_Effect_of_the_olive_oil_phenol_ hydroxytyrosol_on_human_hepatoma.html
Effect of the olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Protection  New Study Finds Olive Oil Effective against HER-2 Breast Cancer.

Influence of Hydroxystyrol on Heart Disease

Monoterpenes

Lemonol, beta-Geraniol, trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol

Geraniol is acyclic monoterpene-alcohol. Pure geraniol is a colourless oily liquid, with a sweet rose-like scent. When oxidized, geraniol becomes geranial or citral.

Bergamot, carrot, coriander, lavender, lemon, lime, nutmeg, orange, rose, blueberry and blackberry.

Health Benefits of Geraniol

Geraniol is a natural antioxidant. Geraniol has been suggested to help prevent cancer. Carnesecchi S. et al demonstrated in his study „Geraniol, a component of Plant Essential Oils, Inhibits Grwoth and Polyamine Biosyntehsis in Human Colon Cancer Cells”, (Pharmacology, July 2001) that geraniol caused a 50% increase of ornithine decarboxylase activity, which is enhances during cancer growth. Geraniol inhibits DNA synthesis.

Burk YD concluded in his study „Inhibition of Pancreatic Cancer Growth by the dietary isoprenoids farnesol and geraniol” (Lipids, February 1997) that geraniol, farnesol and perilll alcohol suppress pancreatic tumor growth.

Other animal studies have also demonstrated the anticancer effects of geraniol.

science.naturalnews.com/…/287047_Geraniol_inhibits_prostate_cancer_ growth_by_targeting_cell_cycle_and.html
Geraniol inhibits prostate cancer growth by targeting cell cycle and apoptosis pathways.
science.naturalnews.com/G/Geraniol_and_cancer.html

Methyl-4-isopropenyl cyclohexene, Cajaputene, Carvene, Cinene, Dipentene, Efchole

Pure limonene is a clear liquid. Limonene is a monoterpene, made up of two isoprene units. Limonene occurs in two optically active forms, l-limonene and d-limonen. Both isomers have different odours: l-limonene smells piney and turpentine like and d-limonene has a pleasing orange scent.

Limonene is found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and many other plant species.

Limonene, found in lemons (Citrus limonum), oranges (Citrus aurantium), juniper (Juniperus communis) Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spicata, Verbena officinalis, Hyssopus officinalis, and in sage (Salvia officinalis), induces  apatosis in leukaemia cells (693).

Health Benefits of Limonene

Studies have shown that limonene have anti- cancer effects.

Limonen increase the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens. The Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a system which eliminates carcinogens. Limonene seems to promote the GST system in the liver and small bowel, thereby decreasing the damaging effects of carcinogens. Animal studies demonstrated that dietary limonene reduced mammary tumor growth.

Limonene induces the formation of apoptotic bodies on BCG-823 gastric cancer cells in a dose-and time –dependent manner (1565) and induced significant reductions of hepatocellular carcinomas (1566).

Limonene showed anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects on human gastric cancer implanted in nude mice, thus inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis (1577).

At least 6-7 lemons a day should be taken, possibly fresh, because lemons help eliminate the acid wastes from the body, increasing the reserves of alkaline substances in the blood and helping the urinary apparatus to expel uric acids. One lemon a day should be taken in the first week, to reach 7 lemons a day by the seventh week of the treatment; this should be continued this throughout the illness until the hoped-for cure. The honey from lemon flowers is currently under evaluation.

The essential oil of Citrus limonum is extremely nutritious both for its K-cals and for the phytochemicals found in it. N.B. the pressing of the oil must be done cold and without solvents.

Industrial limonene is produced by by alkali extraction of citrus residues and steam distillation. This distillate contains more than 90% d-limonene.

for studies cited above SEE LAST PAGE of DATABASE

Organosulfides

Allicin is an unstable compound that is strongly antibacterial and mainly responsible for garlic’s characteristic odor.

In vitro studies show that allicin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells. The phytochemical also exhibits antigenotoxic action. But the anticancer effect of allicin in humans remains uncertain, because of its low stability and poor bioavailability.

A study conducted at the Nanjing Medical University, China, concluded that allicininhibited the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells in vitro at non-cytotoxic concentration through down-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), urokinase receptor (uPAR) and heparanase mRNA [1]. The researchers tested the effect of allicin on invasion and metastasis of human colon cancer cell line LoVo in vitro by using migratory test, adhesion test and Transwell chamber experiment. Allicin showed an inhibitive effects on growth of the cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The phytochemicals suppressed the movement, adhesion and invasive capability of carcinoma cells.

A study by the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, demonstrated the antiproliferative function of allicin on two leukemia cell lines (HL60 and U937) [2]. They found that allicin showed anticancer effect by inducing growth inhibition, apoptotic events such as blebbing, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. Allicin reduced glutathione in the cytosol and mitochondria and changed the intracellular redox status.

Siddique and Afzal of the Aligarh Muslim University, India, investigated the antigenotoxic potential of allicin in cultured human lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges induced by the genotoxic methyl methanesulphonate [3]. They found that allicin treatment reduced the damage caused by the genotoxin, as illustrated by lower levels of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges.

[1] Effects of allicin on invasion and metastasis of colon cancer LoVo cell line in vitro. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009 May 26;89(20):1382-6.

[2] Allicin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in HL60 and U937 cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Aug;19(8):524-35.

[3] Antigenotoxic effect of allicin against methyl methanesulphonate induced genotoxic damage. J Environ Biol. 2005 Jul;26(3):547-50.

See this extensive article on garlic  click here

Gamma-Glutamylcysteinylglycine

Glutathione is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine.

Although glutathione is produced by our body is can be beneficial to consume extra glutathione through the diet.

Glutathione is mainly in animal products but also in many plants including avocado, asparagus, broccoli, grapefruit, potato, strawberries, orange, tomato, peach and spinach.

Health Benefits of Glutathine

Glutathione is an important antioxidant. Glutathione neutralizes toxic peroxide which could otherwise damage our DNA and cell membranes. As we get older the glutathione level decreases in intracellular fluids. Dietary intake of glutathione can be important for older individuals which have reduced capabilities to detoxify free radicals. Glutathione also reacts with some toxins and helps to break them down, such as the pain reliever acetaminophen.

Glutathione improves the stability of other antioxidants including vitamin C and vitamin E. Glutathione supports our immune system and stimulates the production of lymphocyte immune cells.

Studies on Glutathione and cancer